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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. What HIV programs work for adolescent girls?

    Background: Adolescent girls face unique challenges in reducing their risk of acquiring HIV because of gender inequalities, but much of HIV programming and evaluation lacks a specific focus on female adolescents. Methods: This article, based on a review of 150 studies and evaluations from 2001 to June 2013, reviews evidence on programming for adolescents that is effective for girls or could be adapted to be effective for girls. Results: The evidence suggests specific interventions for adolescent girls across 3 critical areas: (1) an enabling environment, including keeping girls in school …

  2. Application of the information, motivation and behavioural skills model for targeting HIV risk behaviour amongst adolescent learners in South Africa

    This paper discusses the application of an information, motivation and behavioural skills (IMB) model in a school-based programme for the reduction of HIV risk behaviour among 259 Grade 11 learners in two high schools in Alexandra township, Johannesburg. School 1 was the Experimental group, while School 2 was the Control group. After a baseline study (Time 1) at both schools, a 3-week intervention programme was conducted at School 1. A post-test (Time 2) was conducted at both schools. The intervention was repeated at School 2, followed by another post-test (Time 3) at both schools. …

  3. Targeting HIV prevention messaging to a new generation of gay, bisexual, and other young men who have sex with men

    HIV prevention messaging has been shown to reduce or delay high-risk sexual behaviors in young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Since the onset of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, a new generation of YMSM has come of age during an evolution in communication modalities. Because both these communication technologies and this new generation remain understudied, the authors investigated the manner in which YMSM interact with HIV prevention messaging. …

  4. Teacher training and HIV/AIDS prevention in West Africa: regression discontinuity design evidence from the Cameroon

    The authors assess the impact on teenage childbearing as well as student knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of a typical HIV/AIDS teacher training program in the Cameroon. Applying a regression discontinuity design identification strategy based on the key administrative criterion that determined program deployment, they find that 15–17 year old girls in teacher training schools are between 7 and 10 percentage points less likely to have started childbearing, an objective proxy for the incidence of unprotected sex. …

  5. A surprising prevention success: Why did the HIV epidemic decline in Zimbabwe?

    There is growing recognition that primary prevention, including behavior change, must be central in the fight against HIV/AIDS. The earlier successes in Thailand and Uganda may not be fully relevant to the severely affected countries of southern Africa. We conducted an extensive multi-disciplinary synthesis of the available data on the causes of the remarkable HIV decline that has occurred in Zimbabwe (29% estimated adult prevalence in 1997 to 16% in 2007), in the context of severe social, political, and economic disruption. …

  6. On the cutting edge: improving the informed consent process for adolescents in Zambia undergoing male circumcision for HIV prevention

    The authors present data from operations research into the introduction of male circumcision (MC) in Zambia, assessing informed consent (IC) procedures for adolescent MC clients. They administered a comprehension test among adult (n=311) and adolescent (n=115) clients at 10 clinics around Lusaka between the counseling and IC process. They conducted semi-structured interviews with adolescent (1317 years) MC clients 1 week post-surgery (n=28) and 13 key informants (service providers and stakeholders). …

  7. The effects of peer education on reduction of the HIV/sexually transmitted infection risk behaviors among Turkish university students

    This study investigated how HIV/sexually transmitted infection peer education (PE) affected HIV knowledge, perceived prevention self-efficacy, and risky sexual behaviors among Turkish university students (N = 118) who were sexually active but did not use condoms. A methodological and pre-/posttest controlled study design was used, with data collected before PE, just after PE, 3 months after PE, and 6 months after PE. …

  8. Gendered perceptions of HIV risk among young women and men in a high-HIV-prevalence setting

    It has become evident that sexual health and HIV-risk behaviours cannot be addressed effectively without paying adequate attention to constructions of gender and sexuality. While the body of literature examining these themes is growing and becoming more nuanced, there is still a significant gap in our understanding of the relationship between gendered sexual identities and vulnerabilities to disease. In particular, few studies have explored how youths themselves perceive this relationship, and how these perceptions may differ among males and females. …

  9. Bisexual behavior among Chinese young migrant men who have sex with men: implications for HIV prevention and intervention

    The authors analyzed data from 307 Chinese young migrant men who have sex with men (MSM) in Beijing to examine bisexual behavior and the associated socio-demographic and behavioral factors. Twenty-seven percent of the MSM were also concurrently engaged in sexual behavior with women (MSMW). Among MSMW, 8.4% were infected with HIV, and 10.8% with syphilis, compared to 4.9% and 23.7%, respectively, among men who have sex with men only (MSM-only). …

  10. Young People Most at Risk for HIV/AIDS

    Attention paid to adults most at risk for HIV/AIDS - people who sell sex, those who inject drugs, and men who have sex with men (MSM) - is growing. Unfortunately, the particular needs of young people (ages 10 to 24) in these groups have drawn little focus. Young people who are most at risk for infection with HIV are among society’s most marginalized groups. In most cultures, the prevailing reaction to behavior linked to high risk of HIV infection is to try to prevent and punish it. Programs that aim to reduce harm provoke opposition, because they seem to tolerate or enable illegal behavior. …

  11. Reducing sexual risk taking behaviors among adolescents who engage in transactional sex in post-conflict Liberia

    Transactional sex (TS) has been correlated with HIV/STD infection, pregnancy, early marriage, and sexual violence in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Few Western-based HIV prevention programs adapted for SSA have examined intervention impacts for this group. This article examines whether an HIV prevention intervention, delivered to sixth-grade students in Liberia (age range 14–17) and found to increase condom use and other mediators for the larger sample, significantly impacted sexual behaviors and mediators for those who engaged in TS. …

  12. Jamaican Mothers' Influences of Adolescent Girls' Sexual Beliefs and Behaviors

    The purpose of this study was to identify the ways in which urban Jamaican mothers influence their adolescent daughters' sexual beliefs and behaviors in order to incorporate them into the design of a family-based, HIV risk-reduction intervention program. Focus groups were conducted with forty-six 14- to 18-year-old adolescent girls and 30 mothers or female guardians of adolescent girls recruited from community-based organizations in and around Kingston and St. Andrew, Jamaica. Separate focus groups were held with mothers and daughters; each included 6 to 10 participants. …

  13. Impact of school-based HIV prevention program in post-conflict Liberia

    This paper presents findings of a feasibility study to adapt and evaluate the impact of an evidence-based HIV prevention intervention on sexual risk behaviors of in-school 6th grade youth in post-conflict Liberia (n = 812). The study used an attention-matched, group randomized controlled trial. Four matched pairs of elementary/middle schools in Monrovia, Liberia, were randomly assigned to either an adapted eight-module HIV prevention or a general health curriculum. Three- and nine-month impacts of the intervention on sexual risk behaviors and on mediating variables are presented. …

  14. HIV, syphilis infection, and risky sexual behaviors among male university students who have sex with men in Beijing, China: a cross-sectional study

    Young male university students who have sex with men are at high risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The authors conducted a cross-sectional survey to assess the prevalence of risky sexual behaviors, HIV, and syphilis among male university students who have sex with men in Beijing, China; and to identify risk factors for unprotected anal intercourse (UAI). Among 157 study participants, HIV and syphilis prevalence were 2.5% and 7.0%, respectively. The authors found a high prevalence of UAI in the study population. …

  15. HIV among out-of-school youth in Eastern and Southern Africa: a review

    The overall decline of the HIV epidemic in Sub-Saharan Africa conceals how the HIV burden has shifted to fall on areas that have been more difficult to reach. This review considers out-of-school youth, a category typically eluding interventions that are school-based. Our review of descriptive studies concentrates on the most affected region, Southern and Eastern Africa, and spans the period between 2000 and 2010. …

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