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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Application of the information, motivation and behavioural skills model for targeting HIV risk behaviour amongst adolescent learners in South Africa

    This paper discusses the application of an information, motivation and behavioural skills (IMB) model in a school-based programme for the reduction of HIV risk behaviour among 259 Grade 11 learners in two high schools in Alexandra township, Johannesburg. School 1 was the Experimental group, while School 2 was the Control group. After a baseline study (Time 1) at both schools, a 3-week intervention programme was conducted at School 1. A post-test (Time 2) was conducted at both schools. The intervention was repeated at School 2, followed by another post-test (Time 3) at both schools. …

  2. HIV prevention among vulnerable populations: the Pathfinder International approach

    This publication provides a background in the risks faced by populations especially vulnerable to HIV and AIDS. The document outlines strategies effective in prevention of HIV and AIDS among sex workers, men who have sex with other men, and injecting drug users. Programs described include peer education, comprehensive health services and quality of treatment, provider referral networks, and in-service training and sensitization.

  3. Theatre for a Change Ghana: Interim impact assessment of the Peace and Love Club project

    Theatre for a Change (TfaC) is a registered non-governmental organization in Ghana which works to reduce the risk of HIV infection among marginalized and vulnerable groups through the use of interactive, participatory learning techniques. The HIV prevalence rate in Ghana is 1.37% and 11.1% among female sex workers (FSWs). In September 2012, following a period of mobilisation, TfaC began working with a group of 10 FSWs living and working in Old Fadama, Accra’s largest illegal settlement, to form the Peace and Love Club. …

  4. Mixed method evaluation of a passive mHealth sexual information texting service in Uganda

    The authors evaluate the impact of a health information intervention implemented through mobile phones, using a clustered randomized control trial augmented by qualitative interviews. The intervention aimed to improve sexual health knowledge and shift individuals towards safer sexual behavior by providing reliable information about sexual health. The novel technology designed by Google and Grameen Technology Center provided automated searches of an advice database on topics requested by users via SMS. It was offered by MTN Uganda at no cost to users.

  5. A surprising prevention success: Why did the HIV epidemic decline in Zimbabwe?

    There is growing recognition that primary prevention, including behavior change, must be central in the fight against HIV/AIDS. The earlier successes in Thailand and Uganda may not be fully relevant to the severely affected countries of southern Africa. We conducted an extensive multi-disciplinary synthesis of the available data on the causes of the remarkable HIV decline that has occurred in Zimbabwe (29% estimated adult prevalence in 1997 to 16% in 2007), in the context of severe social, political, and economic disruption. …

  6. The global HIV epidemics among sex workers

    Since the beginning of the epidemic sex workers have experienced a heightened burden of HIV across settings, despite their higher levels of HIV protective behaviors (UNAIDS, 2009). By gaining a deeper understanding of the epidemiologic and broader policy and social context within which sex work is set one begins to quickly gain a sense of the complex backdrop for increased risk to HIV among sex workers. …

  7. The global HIV epidemics among people who inject drugs

    This publication addresses research questions related to an increase in the levels of access and utilization for four key interventions that have the potential to significantly reduce HIV infections among People Who Inject Drugs (PWID) and their sexual and injecting partners, and hence morbidity and mortality in low and middle-income countries (LMIC). These interventions are drawn from nine consensus interventions that comprise a 'comprehensive package' for PWID. …

  8. Regional issues brief: Children, HIV and the law

    This regional issues brief was prepared for the Africa Regional Dialogue of the Global Commission on HIV and the Law which took place on 4 August 2011 in Pretoria, South Africa. The brief examines legal responses to children and HIV in Africa including: Prohibiting discrimination; Access to treatment; Access to sexual and reproductive rights; Access to HIV information and education; Access to harm reduction measures; Guardianship, property rights and social protection.

  9. My Story My Life

    This book is designed to help in-school students learn about the health risks involved in pre-marital sex and to improve their life skills. The material is presented in story form, in hopes that young people will identify with the characters. The topics and concepts of this booklet were drawn from studies conducted with youth in Kogi and Cross River states of Nigeria. The issues highlighted revolve around young people's ability to abstain or delay pre-marital sex in order to reduce their risk of HIV infection. …

  10. Reducing sexual risk taking behaviors among adolescents who engage in transactional sex in post-conflict Liberia

    Transactional sex (TS) has been correlated with HIV/STD infection, pregnancy, early marriage, and sexual violence in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Few Western-based HIV prevention programs adapted for SSA have examined intervention impacts for this group. This article examines whether an HIV prevention intervention, delivered to sixth-grade students in Liberia (age range 14–17) and found to increase condom use and other mediators for the larger sample, significantly impacted sexual behaviors and mediators for those who engaged in TS. …

  11. Impact of school-based HIV prevention program in post-conflict Liberia

    This paper presents findings of a feasibility study to adapt and evaluate the impact of an evidence-based HIV prevention intervention on sexual risk behaviors of in-school 6th grade youth in post-conflict Liberia (n = 812). The study used an attention-matched, group randomized controlled trial. Four matched pairs of elementary/middle schools in Monrovia, Liberia, were randomly assigned to either an adapted eight-module HIV prevention or a general health curriculum. Three- and nine-month impacts of the intervention on sexual risk behaviors and on mediating variables are presented. …

  12. Sports for adolescent girls

    Adolescence is a time when gender disparities between boys and girls become more pronounced. While many boys stay focused on school, girls often have more responsibilities at home. These responsibilities limit girls’ opportunities for maintaining social networks, and social isolation can contribute to increasing the risk of dropping out of school, marrying early, and being in situations that leave them vulnerable to pregnancy and HIV infection. At their most recent annual meeting, the Interagency Youth Working Group focused on protecting and empowering adolescent girls. …

  13. Movie: Into the hands of women

    Fulaas is one of our community based distributors. He’s also a volunteer. This film follows him as he dispenses family planning advice and contraceptives to villagers in Oromo, Ethiopia. Without Fulaas, and others like him, there would be very little access to contraception in rural Ethiopia. Development depends on getting the right supplies - contraceptives, condoms, medicines, and equipment – to the people who need them most. And that depends on our volunteers. They are part of the largest voluntary organization in sexual and reproductive health and rights. …

  14. The Impact of a Comprehensive Microfinance Intervention on Depression Levels of AIDS-Orphaned Children in Uganda

    The relationship between poverty and mental health functioning is well documented. Poverty affects not only families’ ability to physically care for children, but also families’ stability, functioning, and psychosocial well-being. In this article, we examine the impact of a comprehensive microfinance intervention, intended to reduce the risk of poverty, on depression among adolescent youth who have lost either one or both parents to AIDS.A child who has been affected by AIDS is more likely to have increased levels of anxiety, depression, and reduced self-esteem. …

  15. Addressing sexual violence and HIV risk among married adolescent girls in rural Nyanza, Kenya

    HIV infection is much higher among adolescent girls in sub-Saharan Africa than among boys. In settings such as Nyanza Province, Kenya, rates of HIV infection are extremely high, and evidence is increasing in some settings that girls who are married are much more likely to be infected with HIV, compared with their unmarried sexually active counterparts. This brief describes a program addressing the problem of sexual violence and the risk of HIV transmission within marriage in Kenya's Nyanza Province. …

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