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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Hidden from health: structural stigma, sexual orientation concealment, and HIV across 38 countries in the European MSM Internet Survey

    Objective: Substantial country-level variation exists in prejudiced attitudes towards male homosexuality and in the extent to which countries promote the unequal treatment of MSM through discriminatory laws. The impact and underlying mechanisms of country-level stigma on odds of diagnosed HIV, sexual opportunities, and experience of HIV-prevention services, needs and behaviours have rarely been examined, however. Design: Data come from the European MSM Internet Survey (EMIS), which was administered between June and August 2010 across 38 European countries (N = 174 209). …

  2. Intersectionality of HIV stigma and masculinity in eastern Uganda: implications for involving men in HIV programmes

    Background: Stigma is a determinant of social and health inequalities. In addition, some notions of masculinity can disadvantage men in terms of health outcomes. However, few studies have explored the extent to which these two axes of social inequality intersect to influence men’s health outcomes. This paper investigates the intersection of HIV stigma and masculinity, and its perceived impact on men’s participation in and utilisation of HIV services in Uganda. Methods: Interviews and focus group discussions were conducted in Mbale and Jinja districts of Uganda between June and October 2010. …

  3. Compresión y respuesta al estigma y la discriminación por el VIH/sida en el sector salud

    El presente análisis procura profundizar la comprensión del estigma y la discriminación en relación con el VIH/SIDA en los servicios de salud de América Latina y el Caribe. Con este fin, primero se examinan los componentes del fenómeno, su interrelación y las lagunas en los conocimientos actuales. En segundo lugar, se comparan estudios sobre el estigma y la discriminación y proyectos destinados a reducir su incidencia y repercusiones. Por último, se esbozan las estrategias para una respuesta integral. …

  4. El estigma asociado al VIH/SIDA: el caso de los prestadores de servicios de salud en México

    Este documentoáanaliza el estigma y la discriminación relacionados con el VIH/SIDA por parte de los prestadores de servicios de salud en tres estados de la República mexicana, con base en las percepciones que tienen sobre la infección y las personas que viven con VIH/SIDA (PVVS). Material y métodos: Descripción cualitativa y cuantitativa. Observación en nueve instituciones; entrevistas en profundidad (14) y encuestas (373) a proveedores de servicios de salud. …

  5. Salud, VIH-sida y sexualidad trans: Atención de la salud de personas travestis y transexuales. Estudio de seroprevalencia de VIH en personas trans

    Documento sobre atención de salud de personas travestis y transexuales (nacidas con sexo masculino) en Argentina.áLa primera parte de esta publicación y consta de cinco artículos. El primero es "Nociones generales sobre sexualidad", en el que se presentan algunos conceptos básicos que, entendemos, permiten salir de una lectura "natural" de la sexualidad para poder pensarla como un hecho social y cultural. Entender la complejidad de cómo nos formamos como hombres o mujeres permite entender mejor por qué también podemos ser trans. …

  6. Siyam'kela: Measuring HIV/AIDS-related stigma, A literature review

    Stigma has been identified as a complex, diverse and deeply rooted phenomenon that is dynamic in different cultural settings. As a collective social process rather than a mere reflection of an individual's subjective behaviour, it operates by producing and reproducing social structures of power, hierarchy, class and exclusion and by transforming difference (class, race, ethnicity, health status, sexual orientation and gender) into inequality. This document is a literature review about stigma in every sense of the word.

  7. Understanding and challenging HIV stigma. Toolkit for action. Modules F & G: Coping with stigma. Treatment and stigma

    This document is part of a toolkit written for and by HIV trainers. The toolkit has been designed to help trainers plan and organise educational sessions with community leaders or organised groups. It consists in a collection of participatory training exercises to help people at all levels understand stigma - what it means, why it is an important issue, what its root causes are - and develop strategies to challenge stigma and discrimination. The present document contains the Module F "Coping with stigma" and the Module G, "Treatment and stigma". …

  8. Uganda: HIV and AIDS-related discrimination, stigmatisation and denial

    Discrimination, stigmatisation and denial have been recognized as important issues to be addressed in the context of HIV/AIDS. Discrimination against those living with HIV/AIDS, or presumed to be infected, is a violation of human rights. All individuals deserve equal respect and dignity, whatever their situation and whatever their status. This key Material describes the findings from a study of the nature, determinants and the effects of HIV/AIDS-related discrimination, stigmatization and denial in Uganda. …

  9. India: HIV and AIDS-related discrimination, stigmatisation and denial

    Discrimination, stigmatisation and denial have been recognized as important issues to be addressed in the context of HIV/AIDS. Discrimination against those living with HIV/AIDS, or presumed to be infected, is a violation of human rights. All individuals deserve equal respect and dignity, whatever their situation and whatever their status. This key Material describes the findings from a study of the nature, determinants and the effects of HIV/AIDS-related discrimination, stigmatization and denial in India. …

  10. Health seeking behaviour and the control of sexually transmitted disease

    What people do when they have symptoms or suspicion of a sexually transmitted disease (STD) has major implications for transmission and, consequently, for disease control. Delays in seeking and obtaining diagnosis and treatment can allow for continued transmission and the greater probability of adverse sequelae. An understanding of health seeking behaviour is therefore important if STD control programmes are to be effective. However, taboos and stigma related to sex and STD in most cultures mean that gaining a true picture is difficult and requires considerable cultural sensitivity. …

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