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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Mapping the knowledge and understanding of menarche, menstrual hygiene and menstrual health among adolescent girls in low- and middle-income countries

    This paper maps the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices surrounding menarche, menstrual hygiene and menstrual health among adolescent girls in low and middle income countries in order to inform the future design of relevant policies and programming. The study of over 80 journal articles from a number of low and middle income countries confirmed that: (1) Many adolescent girls start their periods uninformed and unprepared. (2) Mothers are the primary source of information, but they inform girls too-little and too-late and often communicate their own misconceptions. …

  2. MHM in Ten: advancing the MHM agenda in WASH in schools

    In recent years, there has been growing attention to the challenges faced by menstruating schoolgirls in low- and middle-income countries. A solid body of research conducted across numerous countries and contexts has documented menstruating girls’ experiences of shame. The evidence has revealed the discriminatory nature of many school environments, with menstruating girls (and female teachers) unable to adequately manage their monthly menses with safety, dignity and privacy. This, in turn, may have negative impacts on girls’ ability to succeed and thrive within the school environment. …

  3. Global review of sanitation system trends and interactions with menstrual management practices. Report for the menstrual management and sanitation systems project

    This review of sanitation system trends and interactions with menstrual management practices has been conducted as part of the broader project on Menstrual Management and Sanitation Systems. It starts with a review of trends in the development of urban sanitation systems and then explores the interaction between menstrual management and sanitation systems, mainly relating to the issue of disposal of used menstrual blood absorption materials. …

  4. Socio-cultural aspects of menstruation in an urban slum in Delhi, India

    The paper attempts to understand the experience of menstruation in the socio-cultural context of an urban Indian slum. Observations were gathered as part of a larger study of reproductive tract infections in women in Delhi, using both qualitative and quantitative methods.

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