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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. HIV/AIDS knowledge and behaviour: have information campaigns reduced HIV infection? The case of Kenya

    AIDS continues to have a devastating effect on developing countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. The lack of a proven effective vaccine to stop HIV transmission has led to much of public policy putting an emphasis on information campaigns in order to reduce HIV-prevalence. In this paper we examine the impact of HIV/AIDS-knowledge from two sides. First, we examine to what extent the campaigns have been successful at inducing the expected behavioural change with regards to HIV-related attitudes. Second, we examine the impact of HIV/AIDS knowledge on HIV status. …

  2. Cost and cost effectiveness analysis of school-based sexuality education in six countries: full report + School-based sexuality education programmes: a cost and cost-effectiveness analysis in six countries. Executive summary

    Costing and cost-effectiveness data for HIV prevention programmes are important tools for decision-makers. In many countries, HIV prevention efforts for young people have increasingly focused on schools, with many ministries of education in the process of scaling up school-based sexuality education programmes. However, most ministries of education are implementing programmes without an adequate understanding of how much the programmes cost per learner or per HIV/STIs or unintended pregnancy averted. …

  3. Pupil and teacher knowledge about HIV and AIDS in Kenya

    The Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality (SACMEQ) is a network of 15 Ministries of Education: Botswana, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Seychelles, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania (Mainland), Tanzania (Zanzibar), Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe. …

  4. How successful are HIV-AIDS prevention education programmes?

    The 15 Ministers of Education associated with the Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality (SACMEQ) have been concerned for a number of years about the lack of well-designed objective indicators that can be used to guide an informed debate about the effectiveness of HIV and AIDS prevention education programmes. SACMEQ research teams responded to this concern in 2007 by developing an HIV-AIDS Knowledge Test (known as the HAKT) that was suitable for administration to Grade 6 pupils (aged around 13.5 years on average in SACMEQ countries) and their teachers. …

  5. A multi-level model of condom use among male and female upper primary school students in Nyanza, Kenya

    Although several studies have emphasized the relevance of community level variables to AIDS prevention among young people in sub-Saharan Africa, few have tested the empirical connections between such variables and sexual behaviors. Using data from 3645 sexually experienced grade 6 and 7 students from 160 schools, this study applies hierarchical linear models to estimate the effects of individual and community level variables on condom use among youth in Nyanza Province, Kenya. Four separate models were fit for both males and females. …

  6. Kenya's HIV/AIDS Education Sector Policy: Implications for Orphaned and Vulnerable Children and the Teaching of HIV/AIDS Education

    Kenya's HIV/AIDS Education Sector Policy: Implications for Orphaned and Vulnerable Children and the Teaching of HIV/AIDS Education is a paper resulting from a study conducted in 2005-2006 on the 2004 HIV/AIDS Education Sector Policy. It investigates the practical implications of the policy document in addressing provisions related to orphaned and vulnerable children and the teaching and learning of HIV/AIDS education. The paper further assesses practitioners' understanding of the policy. …

  7. Trends in primary and secondary abstinence among Kenyan youth

    Promoting sexual abstinence among never-married youth is an important component of HIV/AIDS prevention campaigns for youth in countries with generalized epidemics. The objective of this study was to examine trends in primary and secondary abstinence among never-married youth age 15-24 in Kenya over a ten-year period and to explore the role of HIV prevention knowledge, schooling, and contextual factors in affecting abstinence behavior. Data were from Kenya Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 1993, 1998, and 2003. Primary abstinence was defined as never-married youth who never had sex. …

  8. Individual- and community-level determinants of social acceptance of people living with HIV in Kenya: results from a national population-based survey

    Using data from the 2003 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey, we investigated the influence of individual- and community-level factors on accepting attitudes toward people living with HIV (PHLIV) using three outcomes: willingness to care for an infected household member, willingness to buy vegetables from an infected vendor, and willingness to allow an infected female teacher to continue teaching. Multilevel logistic regression models, with individuals at the first level and community variables at the second level, were performed. …

  9. Growing up and sexual maturation among the Luo of Kenya: removing barriers to quality education

    This document was written to follow up the exploratory studies undertaken by the Quality Education for Social Transformation (QUEST) programme in Kenya, Uganda and Zimbabwe. To develop instructional materials on the process of growing up and sexual maturation for use in teacher education institutions and primary schools, the Maseno University research team conducted a study to establish the traditional ways of growing up and sexual maturation (GUSM) among four generations of the Luo (one of the main ethnic communities in Kenya). …

  10. Sexual behavior and STI/HIV status among adolescents in rural Malawi. An evaluation of the effect of interview mode on reporting

    This study is an article extracted from "Studies in family Planning", special issue on Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health in Sub-Saharan Africa, published in December 2008. The inconsistency between reported sexual behavior and HIV incidence has prompted some epidemiologists to question the conventional explanation for the African AIDS pandemic. This study represents one effort to investigate the reporting of premarital sex in rural southern Malawi. It summarizes the results from an interview-mode experiment conducted with unmarried young women aged 15-21. …

  11. Levels and spread of HIV seroprevalence and associated factors: evidence from national household surveys

    This report summarizes HIV prevalence and the associations between HIV serostatus and key characteristics and behaviors of adult women and men in 22 developing countries, primarily in sub- Saharan Africa. Data come from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and AIDS Indicator Surveys (AIS) conducted between 2001 and 2006. In most of these surveys, nationally representative samples of women age 15-49 and men age 15-59 were tested for HIV. …

  12. HIV/AIDS and education: experience in changing behaviour: a Kenyan example

    The Primary School Action for Better Health (PSABH) project was first funded on a small scale by DFID in 1999, under a health umbrella programme called HIV and AIDS Prevention and Care (HAPAC). HAPAC was implemented throughout one rural region in Kenya, called Nyanza Province, which borders Lake Victoria. After initial, positive impressions the project was expanded in order to test the potential impact of a large-scale, school-based HIV and AIDS education intervention on pupil knowledge, attitudes and behaviour. …

  13. Abstinence and delayed sexual initiation

    Promoting abstinence is an important strategy that can help delay sexual activity, but complementary messages are needed for those who are sexually active.

  14. Making it work: linking youth reproductive health and livelihood

    The report presents the result of an analysis of linked programmes. The objectives of the analysis was to assess the challenges and potential effectiveness of programmes integrating adolescent reproductive health and livelihoods, highlight innovative approaches, and define gaps that exist in designing interventions. Assessment of selected programmes was carried out in India, Colombia and Kenya.

  15. School as a workplace in Kenya: evaluation of the teachers matter HIV/AIDS project

    Countless HIV/AIDS interventions rely on teachers to deliver vital prevention messages to their students but do not target the teachers as direct beneficiaries, even though the teachers themselves are at risk of HIV infection. In 2004, the Horizons Program of Population Council embarked on an operations research initiative to test the feasibility of implementing a teacher-centered workplace program based in schools. The study was conducted in partnership with the Ministry of Education (MOE), the Kenya Institute of Education (KIE), the Teachers Service Commission (TSC), and UNICEF. …

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