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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Ending child marriage: A guide for global policy action

    This publication is part of IPPF’s thematic focus on adolescents and young people. We recognize the important role of joint advocacy action in addressing child marriage. This advocacy tool is also part of the wider initiative on preventing HIV infection, particularly among adolescent girls, which is led by the United Nations Global Coalition on Women and AIDS (GCWA), with the support of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and Young Positives. …

  2. Individual and community-level tolerance of spouse abuse and the association with the circumstances of first sex among youth from six sub-Saharan African countries

    Youth who engage in early and premarital sex are at risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infections. Most prevention programs ignore the mediating influence of the threat and experience of violence on these outcomes. Using nationally representative data from Lesotho, Malawi, Zimbabwe, Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda, the autors used multivariate analyses to examine the association between individual- and community-level tolerance of spouse abuse on the age and circumstances of sexual debut among female youth. The youth sample sizes ranged from a high of 5007 in Malawi to a low of 3050 in Lesotho. …

  3. Programs to address child marriage: Framing the problem

    Child marriage violates girls’ human rights and adversely affects their health and well-being. While age at marriage is increasing in most regions of the developing world, early marriage persists for large populations. Worldwide, it is estimated that more than one out of three women aged 20–24 were married before age 18, and one out of seven were married before age 15. There is great variation in child marriage practices across and within regions and between ethnic and religious groups. Eradicating child marriage has long been on the agenda of the United Nations and of individual countries. …

  4. When Girls' Lives Matter: Ending Forced and Early Marriage in Cameroon

    The past decade has witnessed a dramatic increase in awareness about early and forced marriage of girls as a widespread violation of human rights. In short, early and forced marriage exacerbate gender inequality and the likelihood of poor outcomes throughout life. Combining public education about the negative effects of early and forced marriage with positive preventive strategies is valuable. The Association for the Struggle Against Violence Against Women (ALVF) in Cameroon is one such example. …

  5. Addressing sexual violence and HIV risk among married adolescent girls in rural Nyanza, Kenya

    HIV infection is much higher among adolescent girls in sub-Saharan Africa than among boys. In settings such as Nyanza Province, Kenya, rates of HIV infection are extremely high, and evidence is increasing in some settings that girls who are married are much more likely to be infected with HIV, compared with their unmarried sexually active counterparts. This brief describes a program addressing the problem of sexual violence and the risk of HIV transmission within marriage in Kenya's Nyanza Province. …

  6. Assessment: legal and regulatory framework affecting treatment and services for most-at-risk populations in Ghana

    In recognition of the importance of an enabling legal and policy environment that supports MARPs and their access to services, the Ghana AIDS Commission requested that the United States Agency for International Development - supported Health Policy Initiative conduct a qualitative assessment to develop an understanding of the current legal and policy framework for MARPs. An enabling environment reduces stigma and discrimination (S&D) against MARPs, protects their rights, and ensures that they have access to needed services. …

  7. HIV/AIDS in Namibia: Behavioral and Contextual Factors Driving the Epidemic

    This report identifies and describes what current evidence indicates are the main behavioral and contextual factors that are driving the HIV epidemic in Namibia. The report is intended to assist in the development of a national prevention strategy for combating the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Data from several sources are triangulated to assess which factors are most likely to contribute to the spread of HIV across the population. In the absence of a national seroprevalence survey, the following were examined to identify the main drivers of the Namibian HIV epidemic: 1. …

  8. Girls count. A global investment and action agenda

    In many places girls and young women do not enjoy the basic rights of voting, cannot inherit land, are subject to female genital cutting, and do not have the right to stop unwanted sexual advances or gain justice. This report is about why and how to put girls at the center of development. It is about how the health of economies and families depends on protecting the rights of and fostering opportunities for today's girls. …

  9. Early marriage: child spouses

    This issue of Digest focuses on early marriages that take place under the age of 18 - the upper limit for protection under the 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child. It examines the practice in all regions and the harmful impact of early marriage on children and society and offers positive guidelines to end the practice of early marriage.

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