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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Estimating numbers of orphans and vulnerable children – a test of regression modeling

    An earlier study reported a tight linear fit between national adult HIV prevalence and the percentage of children living in a household with at least one HIV-positive adult. MEASURE Evaluation extended this analysis to all existing DHS data sets with HIV testing, to determine the feasibility of using regression modeling to estimate the size of two priority groups: (1) children living with at least one adult who is HIV-positive, and (2) orphans and coresident children living with at least one adult who is HIV-positive.

  2. Orphans and vulnerable children: Trends in school access and experience in Eastern and Southern Africa

    Across sub-Saharan Africa, the AIDS pandemic has impacted children in a myriad of ways, from parental loss, to HIV infection, to increased poverty and marginalization. These children have been labeled orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) in the international development literature, and a range of interventions have provided services aiming to mitigate the impact of the crisis on human development outcomes, including education. …

  3. The role of the education sector in providing care and support for orphans and vulnerable children in Lesotho and Swaziland

    The propose of the study was to probe in greater depth, and within the more systematic frame of a research methodology, the dynamics of two current initiatives aiming to provide support to vulnerable children in both Lesotho and Swaziland. Each of the four interventions had within their programme designs a main emphasis on enabling school enrolment and sustaining school attendance. At the same time, the interventions looked to support the more comprehensive needs of vulnerable children and, by doing so, to enhance their overall life situation. …

  4. The debilitating cycle of HIV, food insecurity, and malnutrition. Including a menu of common food security and nutrition interventions for orphans and vulnerable children

    This document aims to facilitate an understanding of the bi-directional relationship between HIV and food and nutrition security. It illustrates the causes of HIV-related food and nutrition insecurity, and points to a list of programmatic interventions and resources to consider for addressing each cause in detail.

  5. AIDS orphans and vulnerable children in India: Problems, prospects and concerns

    This article reviews and discusses the problems, responses, and concerns of orphans and vulnerable children in India. The article shows that HIV/AIDS programs and interventions are vital for survival and welfare of orphan and vulnerable children, but they have reached only to a small fraction of the most vulnerable children. …

  6. Facilitating HIV testing, care and treatment for orphans and vulnerable children aged five years and younger through community-based early childhood development playcenters in rural Zimbabwe

    Early diagnosis of children living with HIV is a prerequisite for accessing timely paediatric HIV care and treatment services and for optimizing treatment outcomes. Testing of HIV-exposed infants at 6 weeks and later is part of the national prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV programme in Zimbabwe, but many opportunities to test infants and children are being missed. …

  7. HIV infection and sexual risk behaviour among youth who have experienced orphanhood: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Background: Previous research has suggested that orphaned children and adolescents might have elevated risk for HIV infection. We examined the state of evidence regarding the association between orphan status and HIV risk in studies of youth aged 24 years and younger. Methods: Using systematic review methodology, we identified 10 studies reporting data from 12 countries comparing orphaned and non-orphaned youth on HIV-related risk indicators, including HIV serostatus, other sexually transmitted infections, pregnancy and sexual behaviours. …

  8. The Impact of a Comprehensive Microfinance Intervention on Depression Levels of AIDS-Orphaned Children in Uganda

    The relationship between poverty and mental health functioning is well documented. Poverty affects not only families’ ability to physically care for children, but also families’ stability, functioning, and psychosocial well-being. In this article, we examine the impact of a comprehensive microfinance intervention, intended to reduce the risk of poverty, on depression among adolescent youth who have lost either one or both parents to AIDS.A child who has been affected by AIDS is more likely to have increased levels of anxiety, depression, and reduced self-esteem. …

  9. Education status among orphans and non-orphans in communities affected by AIDS in Tanzania and Burkina Faso

    The AIDS pandemic has created an estimated 15 million orphans who may face elevated risk of poor health and social outcomes. This paper compares orphans and non-orphans regarding educational status and delay using data collected in three low-income communities affected by AIDS in Tanzania and Burkina Faso. Orphans were significantly more likely not to attend school than were non-orphans and also to be delayed when in school, though, after controlling for confounders, the risk was borderline and non-significant. …

  10. HIV/AIDS orphans in homes/orphanages and the community. Are we missing something? A situational/special needs assessment

    The study sought to unearth the special needs of HIV/AIDS orphans in orphanages and homes with emphasis on education, food, shelter, clothing and affection and guidance and counselling needs. It also tried to make recommendations on how these needs could be met. It was carried out orphanages mainly in the Manya Krobo, and New Juaben districts in the Eastern Region of Ghana, which are noted for their high death rates resulting from AIDS. The sample consisted of 77 children aged between 6 to 15 years from the two districts (23 from Manya Krobo and 54 from New Juaben) and their caregivers. …

  11. Planning a systemic education response to the needs of orphans and other vulnerable children (OVC) in Rwanda

    The objectives of the present study on education provision for OVC, as agreed with MINEDUC and CfBT, were to: Review the categories of OVC and children out of school; Review the identification and description of current education programmes for OVC and out-of-school children; Summarise what is known today of these programmes; Identify unmet needs - and/or changes needed in current OVC education programmes; Note the diversity of children, the diversity of their educational needs, their geographical contexts, social contexts, presence/absence of existing programmes in terms of geographical sprea …

  12. Supporting child rights: synthesis of lessons learned in four countries

    This evaluation was commissioned jointly by the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (Norad) and the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida) with the main purpose of evaluating results of the resources invested by Norway and Sweden in development co-operation in support of child rights. The report found considerable achievements albeit measured in terms of outputs rather than outcomes. However, it also finds that child participation in development efforts has been more tokenistic than substantial. …

  13. Protecting children affected by HIV against abuse, exploitation, violence and neglect

    This document is intended to explore strategies to protect orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) who were made so by HIV from abuse, exploitation, violence, and neglect. It draws from lessons learned by OVC program managers, designers, and policy developers - particularly those associated with the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEFPAR). …

  14. Child Protection Support for Orphans and Vulnerable Children and Their Families in Côte d'Ivoire

    This case study examines Legal Units in Côte d'Ivoire, a network of individuals and resources that can be tapped as needed to protect the rights of children and their families. Their mission is to help resolve legal problems for OVC and their families either by mediation or prosecution, and to raise awareness about children's rights among OVC and their communities.

  15. Assessing implementation of Botswana's program for orphans and vulnerable children

    Botswana's 2008 National Guidelines on the Care of Orphans and Vulnerable Children define a vulnerable child as any child under the age of 18 years who lives in an abusive environment, a poverty-stricken family unable to access basic services, or a child-headed household; a child who lives with sick parents or outside family care; or who is HIV positive. Due to challenges in creating an effective response that corresponds to this broad definition, there are no available estimates of the number of children rendered vulnerable as a result of HIV, poverty, and other causes in Botswana. …

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