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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Orphans and vulnerable children: Trends in school access and experience in Eastern and Southern Africa

    Across sub-Saharan Africa, the AIDS pandemic has impacted children in a myriad of ways, from parental loss, to HIV infection, to increased poverty and marginalization. These children have been labeled orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) in the international development literature, and a range of interventions have provided services aiming to mitigate the impact of the crisis on human development outcomes, including education. …

  2. The role of the education sector in providing care and support for orphans and vulnerable children in Lesotho and Swaziland

    The propose of the study was to probe in greater depth, and within the more systematic frame of a research methodology, the dynamics of two current initiatives aiming to provide support to vulnerable children in both Lesotho and Swaziland. Each of the four interventions had within their programme designs a main emphasis on enabling school enrolment and sustaining school attendance. At the same time, the interventions looked to support the more comprehensive needs of vulnerable children and, by doing so, to enhance their overall life situation. …

  3. Facilitating HIV testing, care and treatment for orphans and vulnerable children aged five years and younger through community-based early childhood development playcenters in rural Zimbabwe

    Early diagnosis of children living with HIV is a prerequisite for accessing timely paediatric HIV care and treatment services and for optimizing treatment outcomes. Testing of HIV-exposed infants at 6 weeks and later is part of the national prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV programme in Zimbabwe, but many opportunities to test infants and children are being missed. …

  4. HIV infection and sexual risk behaviour among youth who have experienced orphanhood: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Background: Previous research has suggested that orphaned children and adolescents might have elevated risk for HIV infection. We examined the state of evidence regarding the association between orphan status and HIV risk in studies of youth aged 24 years and younger. Methods: Using systematic review methodology, we identified 10 studies reporting data from 12 countries comparing orphaned and non-orphaned youth on HIV-related risk indicators, including HIV serostatus, other sexually transmitted infections, pregnancy and sexual behaviours. …

  5. The Impact of a Comprehensive Microfinance Intervention on Depression Levels of AIDS-Orphaned Children in Uganda

    The relationship between poverty and mental health functioning is well documented. Poverty affects not only families’ ability to physically care for children, but also families’ stability, functioning, and psychosocial well-being. In this article, we examine the impact of a comprehensive microfinance intervention, intended to reduce the risk of poverty, on depression among adolescent youth who have lost either one or both parents to AIDS.A child who has been affected by AIDS is more likely to have increased levels of anxiety, depression, and reduced self-esteem. …

  6. National strategy for care and support services in primary schools in Tanzania

    Education is one of the basic child rights and it is vital for children’s future life. Children should attend school and take full advantage of getting their right for education. The Millennium development Goal 2 is to achieve Primary Education of good quality by the year 2015. The Dakar Framework for Action adapted in the World Education Forum reaffirmed the Global commitment to EFA exists six major goals focused on providing Gender responsive good and quality education to all children and adults. …

  7. Vulnerability in AIDS-affected states: rethinking child rights, educational institutions and development paradigms

    The article interrogates current international development constructs of childhood, rights, vulnerability, and schooling in light of the daily experiences of two Malawian children affected by HIV/AIDS. It aims to better understand how development efforts targeted at these children function in practice, and suggests that current development discourses and frameworks may sometimes operate to make the lives of vulnerable children and communities harder and less secure. …

  8. Education status among orphans and non-orphans in communities affected by AIDS in Tanzania and Burkina Faso

    The AIDS pandemic has created an estimated 15 million orphans who may face elevated risk of poor health and social outcomes. This paper compares orphans and non-orphans regarding educational status and delay using data collected in three low-income communities affected by AIDS in Tanzania and Burkina Faso. Orphans were significantly more likely not to attend school than were non-orphans and also to be delayed when in school, though, after controlling for confounders, the risk was borderline and non-significant. …

  9. Manual on Best Practices HIV/AIDS Programming with Children and Young People (version 8.4.2005)

    What are Best Practices? What criteria can be used to define a Best Practice and how can Best Practices be used? How can we promote the use of Best Practices by program staff in the field? These are some of the questions that this manual seeks to answer in relation to HIV/AIDS interventions and programs with children and youth. In order to strengthen the member organisations' use of the Best Practice approach both as a tool and as a process, the two networks entered into a joint venture in 2003. …

  10. HIV/AIDS orphans in homes/orphanages and the community. Are we missing something? A situational/special needs assessment

    The study sought to unearth the special needs of HIV/AIDS orphans in orphanages and homes with emphasis on education, food, shelter, clothing and affection and guidance and counselling needs. It also tried to make recommendations on how these needs could be met. It was carried out orphanages mainly in the Manya Krobo, and New Juaben districts in the Eastern Region of Ghana, which are noted for their high death rates resulting from AIDS. The sample consisted of 77 children aged between 6 to 15 years from the two districts (23 from Manya Krobo and 54 from New Juaben) and their caregivers. …

  11. Report on supporting care providers to improve lives of children orphaned or made vulnerable by HIV/AIDS

    This report presents the findings of a study on how communities lead the response to orphans and other vulnerable children (OVC) in different regions of Malawi - focusing on the districts of Kasungu and Lilongwe in the central region, Mulanje in the south, and Mzimba in the north. These are districts where Plan Malawi implements OVC care and support interventions. The overall goal of the study was to determine the effectiveness of support being provided by care givers to the well being of OVC made vulnerable by HIV and AIDS. …

  12. Kenya OVC support for Orphans and Vulnerable Children Affected by HIV/AIDS: Track 2011, final report

    The USAID-funded Support for Orphans and Vulnerable Children affected by HIV/AIDS project (referred to as Kenya OVC Track I from here onwards) was a six-month follow-on award to the five-year Breaking Barriers Project, implemented in Kenya, Uganda, and Zambia, that ended in September 2010. Kenya OVC Track 1 continued to build on the Breaking Barrier project in Kenya to support orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) in Nairobi, Siaya, and Kisumu counties in the country. …

  13. A novel economic intervention to reduce HIV risks among school-going AIDS orphans in rural Uganda

    This study tested an economic intervention to reduce HIV risks among AIDS-orphaned adolescents. Adolescents (n = 96) were randomly assigned to receive the intervention or usual care for orphans in Uganda. All adolescents in the study received usual care for AIDS orphans in Uganda, which included peer counseling, health education, and scholastic materials. In addition, experimental adolescents received a family economic intervention, which included a Child/Youth Development Account (CDA) and six 2-hour classes on career planning, career goals, microfinance, and financial well-being. …

  14. Getting in line: coordinating responses for children affected by HIV and AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa

    Only one in every eight households containing orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) in African countries received any support from an external source (UNICEF, 2008). This is a reflection of how governments, both rich and poor, have ignored obligations ratified in conventions to ensure the social protection of vulnerable children (United Nations, 1989). Consequently, a disproportionate proportion of the financial burden of care of vulnerable children is borne by affected families and communities. …

  15. Scaling up and sustaining community-based care for preschool and schoolage children - successes and challenges in Malawi

    Community-based organizations (CBOs) are an important model for the care of orphans and other vulnerable children whose life and development are threatened by human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and poverty. However, data are lacking on the challenges and solutions enabling successful expansion of these programs to the national level. This article presents some of the experiences encountered by Malawi in the expansion of their network of CBOs. …

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