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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Orphans and vulnerable children: Trends in school access and experience in Eastern and Southern Africa

    Across sub-Saharan Africa, the AIDS pandemic has impacted children in a myriad of ways, from parental loss, to HIV infection, to increased poverty and marginalization. These children have been labeled orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) in the international development literature, and a range of interventions have provided services aiming to mitigate the impact of the crisis on human development outcomes, including education. …

  2. The role of the education sector in providing care and support for orphans and vulnerable children in Lesotho and Swaziland

    The propose of the study was to probe in greater depth, and within the more systematic frame of a research methodology, the dynamics of two current initiatives aiming to provide support to vulnerable children in both Lesotho and Swaziland. Each of the four interventions had within their programme designs a main emphasis on enabling school enrolment and sustaining school attendance. At the same time, the interventions looked to support the more comprehensive needs of vulnerable children and, by doing so, to enhance their overall life situation. …

  3. Facilitating HIV testing, care and treatment for orphans and vulnerable children aged five years and younger through community-based early childhood development playcenters in rural Zimbabwe

    Early diagnosis of children living with HIV is a prerequisite for accessing timely paediatric HIV care and treatment services and for optimizing treatment outcomes. Testing of HIV-exposed infants at 6 weeks and later is part of the national prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV programme in Zimbabwe, but many opportunities to test infants and children are being missed. …

  4. HIV infection and sexual risk behaviour among youth who have experienced orphanhood: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Background: Previous research has suggested that orphaned children and adolescents might have elevated risk for HIV infection. We examined the state of evidence regarding the association between orphan status and HIV risk in studies of youth aged 24 years and younger. Methods: Using systematic review methodology, we identified 10 studies reporting data from 12 countries comparing orphaned and non-orphaned youth on HIV-related risk indicators, including HIV serostatus, other sexually transmitted infections, pregnancy and sexual behaviours. …

  5. The Impact of a Comprehensive Microfinance Intervention on Depression Levels of AIDS-Orphaned Children in Uganda

    The relationship between poverty and mental health functioning is well documented. Poverty affects not only families’ ability to physically care for children, but also families’ stability, functioning, and psychosocial well-being. In this article, we examine the impact of a comprehensive microfinance intervention, intended to reduce the risk of poverty, on depression among adolescent youth who have lost either one or both parents to AIDS.A child who has been affected by AIDS is more likely to have increased levels of anxiety, depression, and reduced self-esteem. …

  6. Education status among orphans and non-orphans in communities affected by AIDS in Tanzania and Burkina Faso

    The AIDS pandemic has created an estimated 15 million orphans who may face elevated risk of poor health and social outcomes. This paper compares orphans and non-orphans regarding educational status and delay using data collected in three low-income communities affected by AIDS in Tanzania and Burkina Faso. Orphans were significantly more likely not to attend school than were non-orphans and also to be delayed when in school, though, after controlling for confounders, the risk was borderline and non-significant. …

  7. HIV/AIDS orphans in homes/orphanages and the community. Are we missing something? A situational/special needs assessment

    The study sought to unearth the special needs of HIV/AIDS orphans in orphanages and homes with emphasis on education, food, shelter, clothing and affection and guidance and counselling needs. It also tried to make recommendations on how these needs could be met. It was carried out orphanages mainly in the Manya Krobo, and New Juaben districts in the Eastern Region of Ghana, which are noted for their high death rates resulting from AIDS. The sample consisted of 77 children aged between 6 to 15 years from the two districts (23 from Manya Krobo and 54 from New Juaben) and their caregivers. …

  8. A novel economic intervention to reduce HIV risks among school-going AIDS orphans in rural Uganda

    This study tested an economic intervention to reduce HIV risks among AIDS-orphaned adolescents. Adolescents (n = 96) were randomly assigned to receive the intervention or usual care for orphans in Uganda. All adolescents in the study received usual care for AIDS orphans in Uganda, which included peer counseling, health education, and scholastic materials. In addition, experimental adolescents received a family economic intervention, which included a Child/Youth Development Account (CDA) and six 2-hour classes on career planning, career goals, microfinance, and financial well-being. …

  9. Planning a systemic education response to the needs of orphans and other vulnerable children (OVC) in Rwanda

    The objectives of the present study on education provision for OVC, as agreed with MINEDUC and CfBT, were to: Review the categories of OVC and children out of school; Review the identification and description of current education programmes for OVC and out-of-school children; Summarise what is known today of these programmes; Identify unmet needs - and/or changes needed in current OVC education programmes; Note the diversity of children, the diversity of their educational needs, their geographical contexts, social contexts, presence/absence of existing programmes in terms of geographical sprea …

  10. Orphanhood and completion of compulsory school education among young people in South Africa: findings from a national representative survey

    We examined the association of orphanhood and completion of compulsory school education among young people in South Africa. In South Africa, school attendance is compulsory through grade 9, which should be completed before age 16. However, family and social factors such as orphanhood and poverty can hinder educational attainment. Participants were 10,452 16-24-year-olds who completed a South African national representative household survey. Overall, 23% had not completed compulsory school levels. …

  11. Foundation for the future: meeting the psychosocial needs of children living with HIV in Africa

    This technical brief describes promising practices in critical services related to the psychological and social well-being of perinatally-infected children (aged 0 to 12 years) in Africa. These include the identification, testing, and counseling of children so that they are linked to appropriate support as early as possible, as well as the provision of ongoing PSS to help children and their families manage disclosure, stigma, and grief and bereavement processes. …

  12. Child Protection Support for Orphans and Vulnerable Children and Their Families in Côte d'Ivoire

    This case study examines Legal Units in Côte d'Ivoire, a network of individuals and resources that can be tapped as needed to protect the rights of children and their families. Their mission is to help resolve legal problems for OVC and their families either by mediation or prosecution, and to raise awareness about children's rights among OVC and their communities.

  13. Assessing implementation of Botswana's program for orphans and vulnerable children

    Botswana's 2008 National Guidelines on the Care of Orphans and Vulnerable Children define a vulnerable child as any child under the age of 18 years who lives in an abusive environment, a poverty-stricken family unable to access basic services, or a child-headed household; a child who lives with sick parents or outside family care; or who is HIV positive. Due to challenges in creating an effective response that corresponds to this broad definition, there are no available estimates of the number of children rendered vulnerable as a result of HIV, poverty, and other causes in Botswana. …

  14. Influencing policy for children in Tanzania: lessons from education, legislation and social protection

    This paper analyses three recent policy/programme developments regarding child wellbeing in Tanzania and examines the political 'drivers of change' that influence policy and action on child well-being. Chapter One explores the politics of policymaking, and the respective roles of citizens, government and donors in influencing recent reforms in primary education. Chapter Two provides a historical analysis of key processes in the development of a children's statute in Tanzania, and explores the underlying reasons behind the lack of change despite concerted efforts. …

  15. Namibia research situation analysis on orphans and other vulnerable children: country brief

    Addressing the needs of orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) and mitigating negative outcomes of the growing OVC population worldwide is a high priority for national governments and international stakeholders across the globe that recognizes this as an issue with social, economic, and human rights dimensions. …

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