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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Rising school enrollment and declining HIV and pregnancy risk among adolescents in Rakai district, Uganda, 1994–2013

    Background: Poverty, family stability, and social policies influence the ability of adolescents to attend school. Likewise, being enrolled in school may shape an adolescent’s risk for HIV and pregnancy. We identified trends in school enrollment, factors predicting school enrollment (antecedents), and health risks associated with staying in or leaving school (consequences). Methods: Data from the Rakai Community Cohort Study (RCCS) were examined for adolescents 15–19 years (n = 21,735 person-rounds) from 1994 to 2013. …

  2. The government of Kenya cash transfer for orphaned and vulnerable children: cross-sectional comparison of household and individual characteristics of those with and without

    Background: The ‘Cash Transfer to Orphans and Vulnerable Children’ (CT-OVC) in Kenya is a government-supported program intended to provide regular and predictable cash transfers (CT) to poor households taking care of OVC. CT programs can be an effective means of alleviating poverty and facilitating the attainment of an adequate standard of living for people’s health and well-being and other international human rights. …

  3. The impact and cost of the HIV/AIDS investment framework for adolescents

    Background: In 2005, the resources needed to support orphans and vulnerable children in sub-Saharan Africa were estimated at US$1.1–4.1 billion. Approaches to support vulnerable children have changed considerably since then. This study updates previous estimates by including new types of support and information on support costs. Methods: We considered 16 types of support categorized as economic strengthening, education support, social care and community outreach, and program support. …

  4. Very young children affected and infected by HIV/AIDS: How are they living? A case study from Namibia

    This paper describes a recent study conducted jointly by the authors in the Khomas Region of Namibia. The study developed and trialled research and documentation methods regarding very young children who had been infected or affected by the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Because of the stigma attached to the disease, effective methods for assessing ‘real’ needs of the target population have been elusive in Namibia and elsewhere. …

  5. The Government of Kenya’s Cash Transfer Program Reduces the Risk of Sexual Debut among Young People Age 15-25

    The aim of this study is to assess whether the Government of Kenya’s Cash Transfer for Orphans and Vulnerable Children (Kenya CT-OVC) can reduce the risk of HIV among young people by postponing sexual debut. The program provides an unconditional transfer of US$20 per month directly to the main caregiver in the household. An evaluation of the program was implemented in 2007–2009 in seven districts. Fourteen Locations were randomly assigned to receive the program and fourteen were assigned to a control arm. A sample of households was enrolled in the evaluation in 2007. …

  6. The impact of HIV on children's education in eastern Zimbabwe

    Little is known about how HIV impacts directly and indirectly on receiving, or particularly succeeding in, education in sub-Saharan Africa. To address this gap, we used multivariable logistic regression to determine the correlation between education outcomes in youth (aged 15–24) (being in the correct grade-for-age, primary school completion and having at least five “O” level passes) and being HIV-positive; having an HIV-positive parent; being a young carer; or being a maternal, paternal or double orphan, in five rounds (1998–2011) of a general population survey from eastern Zimbabwe. …

  7. Saving lives for a lifetime: Supporting orphans and vulnerable children impacted by HIV/AIDS

    President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR's) response to the millions of children impacted by HIV/AIDS was to designate 10% of its budget to securing their futures, making it the leading supporter of programs reaching orphan and vulnerable children (OVC) programs globally. This article describes the evolution of PEPFAR's OVC response based on programmatic lessons learned and an evergrowing understanding of the impacts of HIV/AIDS. …

  8. HIV infection and sexual risk behaviour among youth who have experienced orphanhood: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Background: Previous research has suggested that orphaned children and adolescents might have elevated risk for HIV infection. We examined the state of evidence regarding the association between orphan status and HIV risk in studies of youth aged 24 years and younger. Methods: Using systematic review methodology, we identified 10 studies reporting data from 12 countries comparing orphaned and non-orphaned youth on HIV-related risk indicators, including HIV serostatus, other sexually transmitted infections, pregnancy and sexual behaviours. …

  9. The Impact of a Comprehensive Microfinance Intervention on Depression Levels of AIDS-Orphaned Children in Uganda

    The relationship between poverty and mental health functioning is well documented. Poverty affects not only families’ ability to physically care for children, but also families’ stability, functioning, and psychosocial well-being. In this article, we examine the impact of a comprehensive microfinance intervention, intended to reduce the risk of poverty, on depression among adolescent youth who have lost either one or both parents to AIDS.A child who has been affected by AIDS is more likely to have increased levels of anxiety, depression, and reduced self-esteem. …

  10. Vulnerability in AIDS-affected states: rethinking child rights, educational institutions and development paradigms

    The article interrogates current international development constructs of childhood, rights, vulnerability, and schooling in light of the daily experiences of two Malawian children affected by HIV/AIDS. It aims to better understand how development efforts targeted at these children function in practice, and suggests that current development discourses and frameworks may sometimes operate to make the lives of vulnerable children and communities harder and less secure. …

  11. Education status among orphans and non-orphans in communities affected by AIDS in Tanzania and Burkina Faso

    The AIDS pandemic has created an estimated 15 million orphans who may face elevated risk of poor health and social outcomes. This paper compares orphans and non-orphans regarding educational status and delay using data collected in three low-income communities affected by AIDS in Tanzania and Burkina Faso. Orphans were significantly more likely not to attend school than were non-orphans and also to be delayed when in school, though, after controlling for confounders, the risk was borderline and non-significant. …

  12. A novel economic intervention to reduce HIV risks among school-going AIDS orphans in rural Uganda

    This study tested an economic intervention to reduce HIV risks among AIDS-orphaned adolescents. Adolescents (n = 96) were randomly assigned to receive the intervention or usual care for orphans in Uganda. All adolescents in the study received usual care for AIDS orphans in Uganda, which included peer counseling, health education, and scholastic materials. In addition, experimental adolescents received a family economic intervention, which included a Child/Youth Development Account (CDA) and six 2-hour classes on career planning, career goals, microfinance, and financial well-being. …

  13. Getting in line: coordinating responses for children affected by HIV and AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa

    Only one in every eight households containing orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) in African countries received any support from an external source (UNICEF, 2008). This is a reflection of how governments, both rich and poor, have ignored obligations ratified in conventions to ensure the social protection of vulnerable children (United Nations, 1989). Consequently, a disproportionate proportion of the financial burden of care of vulnerable children is borne by affected families and communities. …

  14. Scaling up and sustaining community-based care for preschool and schoolage children - successes and challenges in Malawi

    Community-based organizations (CBOs) are an important model for the care of orphans and other vulnerable children whose life and development are threatened by human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and poverty. However, data are lacking on the challenges and solutions enabling successful expansion of these programs to the national level. This article presents some of the experiences encountered by Malawi in the expansion of their network of CBOs. …

  15. The psychological effect of orphanhood in a matured HIV epidemic: an analysis of young people in Mukono, Uganda

    As the HIV pandemic progresses, the number of orphans is expected to rise. Uganda is one of the countries that has been most impacted by the pandemic. A few studies have explored the effects of orphanhood on psychological well-being; however, most of these studies have not explored potential pathways through which orphanhood could affect psychological well-being. Using a school-based sample, this study sought to examine the differences in depressive symptoms and hopelessness between orphans and non-orphans in Mukono District, Uganda. …

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