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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. HIV infection and sexual risk behaviour among youth who have experienced orphanhood: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Background: Previous research has suggested that orphaned children and adolescents might have elevated risk for HIV infection. We examined the state of evidence regarding the association between orphan status and HIV risk in studies of youth aged 24 years and younger. Methods: Using systematic review methodology, we identified 10 studies reporting data from 12 countries comparing orphaned and non-orphaned youth on HIV-related risk indicators, including HIV serostatus, other sexually transmitted infections, pregnancy and sexual behaviours. …

  2. Orphanhood and completion of compulsory school education among young people in South Africa: findings from a national representative survey

    We examined the association of orphanhood and completion of compulsory school education among young people in South Africa. In South Africa, school attendance is compulsory through grade 9, which should be completed before age 16. However, family and social factors such as orphanhood and poverty can hinder educational attainment. Participants were 10,452 16-24-year-olds who completed a South African national representative household survey. Overall, 23% had not completed compulsory school levels. …

  3. Establishing, reviewing and implementing national plans of action for orphans and vulnerable children in Southern and East Africa: lessons learnt and challenges

    This report focuses on the experiences of Save the Children in monitoring, implementing and reviewing NPAs in Angola, Ethiopia, South Africa, Swaziland, Mozambique, Uganda and Zimbabwe. Each of the country offices commissioned the documentation of case studies to identify promising practices and challenges around effective implementation of NPAs. This report consolidates these case studies and aims to draw lessons learnt from the various efforts undertaken by the country offices. …

  4. Home truths: the phenomenon of residential care for children in a time of AIDS

    In the face of the burgeoning AIDS epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa, there is widespread concern that responses to increasing numbers of orphans are resulting in a proliferation of orphanages across the region. This unease emanates from the view that care for children - orphaned or otherwise - in a home and community environment is ideal. Institutions, on the other hand, are noted to impact negatively on children, to operate as "magnets" for children growing up in poverty-stricken environments, and to be disproportionately costly. …

  5. But where are our moral heroes?: An analysis of South African press reporting on children affected by HIV/AIDS

    Messages conveyed both explicitly and implicitly in the media play an important role in the shaping of public understanding of issues, as well as associated policy, programme and popular responses to these issues. This paper applies discourse analysis to a series of articles on children affected by HIV/AIDS published in 2002/2003 in the English-medium South African press. …

  6. South African national HIV prevalence, incidence, behaviour and communication survey, 2008: the health of our children

    The main rationale for this study was to better understand the health status of South African children in relation to HIV. Children have not been adequately included in national health surveys such as the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), and this study allowed for the assessment of progress towards the realisation of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the attainment of the National Strategic Plan targets in South Africa. …

  7. Schools as Centres of Care and Support (SCCS): Responding to the Needs of Orphans and Other Vulnerable Children in Rural Areas

    Southern Africa's rural and impoverished communities are some of the hardest hit by the HIV and AIDS pandemic. Large numbers of vulnerable children in these AIDS-affected communities struggle to access resources and services they desperately need and are entitled to. Despite this, most children still attend school, making schools an obvious avenue through which to address the multiplicity of needs of vulnerable children. The case study presented here describes an innovative and effective programme built on the principles of a multi-sectoral approach to HIV and AIDS. …

  8. Training youth caregivers to provide HIV education and support to orphans and vulnerable children in South Africa

    A study conducted in KwaZulu Natal suggests that utilizing trained youth caregivers is a feasible approach for reaching orphans and vulnerable children with HIV prevention education and support. Participants were enthusiastic about the program and demonstrated some improvements in HIV-related knowledge, attitudes, and communication.

  9. Gender equality, HIV, and AIDS: a challenge for the education sector

    The book shows that while gender inequalities in society generally, and particularly within the education sector, are driving aspects of the HIV epidemic, educational settings can be empowering and bring about change. It examines different expectations of what HIV education programmes and education settings can do to transform unequal gender relations and protect young people against HIV and AIDS and contribute to care for those affected and infected. …

  10. UNICEF Annual report South Africa 2007

    The UNICEF South Africa Annual Report 2007 highlights UNICEF's work in South Africa. It summarizes some of the important results achieved for children in 2007 and highlights what still needs to be done.

  11. Progress in the national response to orphans and other vulnerable children in sub-Saharan Africa. The OVC policy and planning effort index (OPPEI) 2007 round

    This report presents the results of the analysis of the orphans and other vulnerable children (OVC) Policy and Planning Effort Index (OPPEI) in sub-Saharan Africa and reviews progress made in effort since 2004. The OVC Policy and Planning Effort Index (OPPEI) was developed by UNICEF, USAID and the Futures Group to measure the response by countries in Sub-Saharan Africa to the crisis facing orphans and other vulnerable children (OVC) as a result of the HIV and AIDS epidemic. …

  12. Government's social development response to children made vulnerable by HIV/AIDS: Identifying gaps in policy and budgeting

    According to figures released by the Department of Health of South Africa in 2005, an estimated 6.29-6.57 million people were HIV positive in 2004. South Africa is home to approximately 17.7 million children. HIV/AIDS produces and compounds different forms of vulnerability among children. First, children are being made directly vulnerable by infection (mostly caused by mother to child transmission) and related ill-health. The number and proportion of infections due to child abuse is increasing. Secondly, HIV/AIDS is causing vulnerability among children by leaving them orphaned. …

  13. National plans of action for orphans and vulnerable children in sub-Saharan Africa. Where are the youngest children?

    In 2005, an estimated 48 million children aged 0-18 years, that is to say 12 percent of all children in sub-Saharan Africa, were orphans, and that number is expected to rise to 53 million by 2010. One quarter of all orphans are orphaned because of AIDS, and about 2.6 million children are currently infected with HIV. In response to the general awareness of the increasing number of these children, a global initiative to develop national plans of action (NPAs) for these orphans and vulnerable children (OVCs), or children affected by HIV and AIDS, has been launched. …

  14. Turbulence or orderly change? Teacher supply and demand in the age of AIDS

    Turbulence or orderly change? Teacher supply and demand in the age of AIDS

  15. The Current and Future Impact of the HIV/AIDS Epidemic on South Africa's Children

    This chapter has three aims. One, to investigate the impacts of the HIV/AIDS epidemic upon the children of South Africa with a focus on health, welfare and education implications. Two, to examine the responses of families, communities, civil society and governments to the crisis confronting the children. Three, to critique those responses and offer alternatives, which may assist in improving the impacts on children.

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