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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. The Impact of the HIV/AIDS and Economic Crises on Orphans and Other Vulnerable children in Zimbabwe

    Zimbabwe, like most of Sub-Saharian Africa, has been hard-hit by HIV/AIDS. National estimates reported by the Ministry of Health and Child Welfare put the prevalence rates of HIV in the age group between 15 and 49 at 15.3% (WHO, UNICEF, & UNAIDS, 2008). This is one of the highest HIV/AIDS prevalence rates in the world (UNAIDS, 2008). The impact of the pandemic has been so severe that current mitigation efforts fall short of alleviating the situation, especially as it pertains to the plight of children. …

  2. Facilitating HIV testing, care and treatment for orphans and vulnerable children aged five years and younger through community-based early childhood development playcenters in rural Zimbabwe

    Early diagnosis of children living with HIV is a prerequisite for accessing timely paediatric HIV care and treatment services and for optimizing treatment outcomes. Testing of HIV-exposed infants at 6 weeks and later is part of the national prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV programme in Zimbabwe, but many opportunities to test infants and children are being missed. …

  3. HIV infection and sexual risk behaviour among youth who have experienced orphanhood: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Background: Previous research has suggested that orphaned children and adolescents might have elevated risk for HIV infection. We examined the state of evidence regarding the association between orphan status and HIV risk in studies of youth aged 24 years and younger. Methods: Using systematic review methodology, we identified 10 studies reporting data from 12 countries comparing orphaned and non-orphaned youth on HIV-related risk indicators, including HIV serostatus, other sexually transmitted infections, pregnancy and sexual behaviours. …

  4. Early Childhood Education and Care in Southern Africa: A perspective report

    This report explores policy and provision for early childhood education and care (ECEC) in six English speaking countries in Southern Africa - Botswana, Namibia, Lesotho, South Africa, Swaziland and Zimbabwe. In the first section of the review the report aims to - ECEC policy and provision in the wider set context of socio-demographic profiles of the region, in particular referring to economic, education, health and welfare indicators; briefly review the debate about donor aid in Southern Africa and locate ECEC within it. …

  5. Trends in the burden of orphans and vulnerable children in Zimbabwe: evidence from national household surveys, 1994-2006

    This study assesses trends in the prevalence and status of orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) based on data from 2005-06, 1999, and 1994 Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Surveys (ZDHS). The study examines four categories of OVC - orphans, fostered children, children in households with no adults age 18-59, and children in households with chronic illness or recent death due to chronic illness. …

  6. Situational analysis of orphaned and vulnerable children in eight Zimbabwean districts

    In response to the AIDS epidemic and poverty, the Zimbabwean government and other organisations are implementing various programmes aimed at assisting orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) in the eight districts surveyed. It is clearly important to have an audit of the social services and support structures available for OVC in the eight districts and to have a clear understanding of the situation of OVC including their needs and concerns in order to have proper prioritisation, designing and evaluation of programmes that are aimed at supporting the affected children.

  7. The demand for education for orphans in Zimbabwe

    We examine the effect of orphan status on school enrolment in Zimbabwe, a country strongly impacted by the HIV/AIDS pandemic with a rapidly growing population of orphans. Using data from 2003, after controlling for other determinants of enrolment we find that orphans are less likely to attend school than non-orphans. The result is robust to our correction for selection bias. …

  8. National plans of action for orphans and vulnerable children in sub-Saharan Africa. Where are the youngest children?

    In 2005, an estimated 48 million children aged 0-18 years, that is to say 12 percent of all children in sub-Saharan Africa, were orphans, and that number is expected to rise to 53 million by 2010. One quarter of all orphans are orphaned because of AIDS, and about 2.6 million children are currently infected with HIV. In response to the general awareness of the increasing number of these children, a global initiative to develop national plans of action (NPAs) for these orphans and vulnerable children (OVCs), or children affected by HIV and AIDS, has been launched. …

  9. Orphans' Household Circumstances and Access to Education in a Maturing HIV Epidemic in Eastern Zimbabwe

    Levels of orphanhood and patterns of different forms (i.e.: double, paternal and maternal) of orphanhood will change as an HIV epidemic progresses. The implications of different forms of orphanhood for children's development will also change as the cumulative impact of a period of sustained high morbidity and mortality takes its toll on the adult population. In this article, we describe patterns of orphanhood and orphans' educational experience in populations in eastern Zimbabwe subject to a major HIV epidemic which is maturing into its endemic phase. …

  10. Multisectoral responses to HIV/AIDS

    HIV/AIDS is a crisis that expands beyond the health sector and will soon touch everyone in Africa. It is a development problem that defies easy answers and routine solutions. Therefore, creativity, synergy, and collaboration from all sectors of society are required to find solutions to mitigate and prevent the expansion of the epidemic.Many organizations working in Africa, particularly those not involved in health, have been feeling the effects of HIV/AIDS on their programs and asked USAID for some guidance in how to address these complicated issues. …

  11. Investing in Our Future: Psychosocial Support for Children Affected by HIV/AIDS. A Case Study in Zimbabwe and the United Republic of Tanzania

    As the number of HIV/AIDS orphans continues to grow, programs are being established to ensure proper health and schooling for these children. This document takes the support into the psychosocial realm and explores ways in which effective interventions have been developed and implemented to help orphans and affected youth develop a strong self-image and to strengthen self-esteem. The case studies show NGOs and organizations that work and are at work in the United Republic of Tanzania and Zimbabwe.

  12. Contrasting Primary School Outcomes of Paternal and Maternal Orphans in Manicaland, Zimbabwe

    Fewer orphans are enrolled in school than other children but the extent of disadvantage-after allowing for their older average age- is small in most countries. Crosscountry analyses show variation in the size and strength of associations between orphanhood and education according to the form of parental loss experienced. However, maternal death is usually more detrimental to children's education chances than paternal death and double orphans are typically the least likely to be in school. These differences are not fully accounted for by differences in household socio-economic circumstances. …

  13. Children Orphaned by AIDS: front-line responses from eastern and southern Africa

    This document examines the way in which the AIDS epidemicis devastating the lives of children and adolescents throughout sub-Saharan Africa. It then looks at four countrys' individual responses to the crisis and concludes with what individual countries do to help affected children and what the global community can do.

  14. Adolescents: orphaned and vulnerable in the time of HIV/AIDS

    This paper first introduces the key issues regarding orphaned and vulnerable adolescents in the time of HIV/AIDS, including the developmental needs specific to adolescents. The second chapter summarizes the limited studies and programs working primarily with adolescents orphaned due to AIDS. Following are four case studies that demonstrate different strategies for working with adolescent orphans and other youth vulnerable to HIV/AIDS, reflecting different cultural and programmatic approaches relevant to Africa, Asia, and Eastern Europe. …

  15. Monitoring and Evaluation Sub Group ("D") OVC Think Tank: Masiye Camp Zimbabwe August 2001

    This paper describes the monitoring and evaluation strategies suggested for Masiye Camp. It discusses the use of sample indicators and further recommendations in the context of the culture and community aspects and the criteria for te PSS Programmes in the Region for existing and new programmes.

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