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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Orphans and vulnerable children: Trends in school access and experience in Eastern and Southern Africa

    Across sub-Saharan Africa, the AIDS pandemic has impacted children in a myriad of ways, from parental loss, to HIV infection, to increased poverty and marginalization. These children have been labeled orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) in the international development literature, and a range of interventions have provided services aiming to mitigate the impact of the crisis on human development outcomes, including education. …

  2. A novel economic intervention to reduce HIV risks among school-going AIDS orphans in rural Uganda

    This study tested an economic intervention to reduce HIV risks among AIDS-orphaned adolescents. Adolescents (n = 96) were randomly assigned to receive the intervention or usual care for orphans in Uganda. All adolescents in the study received usual care for AIDS orphans in Uganda, which included peer counseling, health education, and scholastic materials. In addition, experimental adolescents received a family economic intervention, which included a Child/Youth Development Account (CDA) and six 2-hour classes on career planning, career goals, microfinance, and financial well-being. …

  3. Scaling up and sustaining community-based care for preschool and schoolage children - successes and challenges in Malawi

    Community-based organizations (CBOs) are an important model for the care of orphans and other vulnerable children whose life and development are threatened by human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and poverty. However, data are lacking on the challenges and solutions enabling successful expansion of these programs to the national level. This article presents some of the experiences encountered by Malawi in the expansion of their network of CBOs. …

  4. Orphanhood and completion of compulsory school education among young people in South Africa: findings from a national representative survey

    We examined the association of orphanhood and completion of compulsory school education among young people in South Africa. In South Africa, school attendance is compulsory through grade 9, which should be completed before age 16. However, family and social factors such as orphanhood and poverty can hinder educational attainment. Participants were 10,452 16-24-year-olds who completed a South African national representative household survey. Overall, 23% had not completed compulsory school levels. …

  5. Assessing implementation of Botswana's program for orphans and vulnerable children

    Botswana's 2008 National Guidelines on the Care of Orphans and Vulnerable Children define a vulnerable child as any child under the age of 18 years who lives in an abusive environment, a poverty-stricken family unable to access basic services, or a child-headed household; a child who lives with sick parents or outside family care; or who is HIV positive. Due to challenges in creating an effective response that corresponds to this broad definition, there are no available estimates of the number of children rendered vulnerable as a result of HIV, poverty, and other causes in Botswana. …

  6. Influencing policy for children in Tanzania: lessons from education, legislation and social protection

    This paper analyses three recent policy/programme developments regarding child wellbeing in Tanzania and examines the political 'drivers of change' that influence policy and action on child well-being. Chapter One explores the politics of policymaking, and the respective roles of citizens, government and donors in influencing recent reforms in primary education. Chapter Two provides a historical analysis of key processes in the development of a children's statute in Tanzania, and explores the underlying reasons behind the lack of change despite concerted efforts. …

  7. Orphaned and vulnerable children in Zambia: the impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic on basic education for children ar risk

    There is an emerging corpus of work on the impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic on education in sub-Saharan Africa. This mainly employs demographic models to make projections of student enrolments and teacher requirements. However, there is a paucity of research in basic schools to examine the experiences of AIDS-affected teachers and students. This study explored staff and student perceptions of the impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic on the education of affected children in high-prevalence districts of the Copperbelt province of Zambia. …

  8. Supporting the educational needs of HIV-positive learners in Tanzania

    As part of a two-country study (with Namibia), TAMASHA was contracted by UNESCO to carry out research into the needs of children in school living with HIV and the extent to which their rights and needs were being fulfilled. This research was carried out by interviewing national policy-makers and officials, as well as district officials in Njombe District. Children living with HIV and others affected by AIDS were also interviewed, together with their parents, guardians and teachers, and organizations working with them in Dar-es-Salaam and Njombe District in Iringa Region. …

  9. The impact of HIV and AIDS on education: education for orphans and vulnerable children in Zambia

    In Zambia, many children have lost one or both parents to HIV and AIDS, leaving them with the responsibility of caring for younger siblings and with little money for school necessities, such as uniforms and books. Oxfam GB is working in partnership with communities and local organisations, including the Zambia Education and Development Advocacy Organisation (ZEDAO), Children In Distress (CINDI) and YWCA Mongu to achieve high quality education for all, giving future generations the chance to lift their communities out of poverty.

  10. Schools as Centres of Care and Support (SCCS): Responding to the Needs of Orphans and Other Vulnerable Children in Rural Areas

    Southern Africa's rural and impoverished communities are some of the hardest hit by the HIV and AIDS pandemic. Large numbers of vulnerable children in these AIDS-affected communities struggle to access resources and services they desperately need and are entitled to. Despite this, most children still attend school, making schools an obvious avenue through which to address the multiplicity of needs of vulnerable children. The case study presented here describes an innovative and effective programme built on the principles of a multi-sectoral approach to HIV and AIDS. …

  11. Supporting the educational needs of HIV-positive learners in Namibia

    As part of a two-country study (with Tanzania), RAISON was contracted by UNESCO to carry out research into the needs of children in school living with HIV and the extent to which their rights and needs were being fulfilled. Information for this study was derived from 76 respondents in Namibia who contributed to interviews and group discussions in February and March 2008. The research was designed to address the following questions: What barriers face HIV-positive learners in accessing education and staying at school? …

  12. Factors influencing access and retention in secondary schooling for orphaned and vulnerable children and young people: case studies from high HIV and AIDS prevalence contexts in Lesotho

    The aim of this study was to identify factors influencing access and retention in secondary schooling for orphans and other vulnerable children living in high HIV prevalence areas of Lesotho. A case study approach was used to address this aim. The findings from this study have been used to inform an intervention that seeks to increase access to learning and thereby reduce drop-out and repetition rates in secondary schools. This study and the intervention are part of a larger programme of research known as the SOFIE Project (see http://sofie.ioe.ac.uk). …

  13. A Case Study: integrated AIDS program Thika, Kenya

    The global HIV and AIDS epidemic has affected sub-Saharan Africa more than any other region in the world. AIDS deaths in sub-Saharan Africa account for 72% of AIDS deaths worldwide. …

  14. The demand for education for orphans in Zimbabwe

    We examine the effect of orphan status on school enrolment in Zimbabwe, a country strongly impacted by the HIV/AIDS pandemic with a rapidly growing population of orphans. Using data from 2003, after controlling for other determinants of enrolment we find that orphans are less likely to attend school than non-orphans. The result is robust to our correction for selection bias. …

  15. National plans of action for orphans and vulnerable children in sub-Saharan Africa. Where are the youngest children?

    In 2005, an estimated 48 million children aged 0-18 years, that is to say 12 percent of all children in sub-Saharan Africa, were orphans, and that number is expected to rise to 53 million by 2010. One quarter of all orphans are orphaned because of AIDS, and about 2.6 million children are currently infected with HIV. In response to the general awareness of the increasing number of these children, a global initiative to develop national plans of action (NPAs) for these orphans and vulnerable children (OVCs), or children affected by HIV and AIDS, has been launched. …

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