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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Having sex, becoming somebody: A qualitative study assessing (sexual) identity development of adolescents living with HIV/AIDS

    A growing number of adolescents are living with HIV/AIDS. For their well-being and for prevention, age- and culturally appropriate interventions become increasingly important. This qualitative study was conducted as the first step to develop a sexual and reproductive health (SRH) intervention. The study's objective was to assess the impact of HIV and related contextual conditions on identity formation of adolescents living with HIV/AIDS (ALH) in the domains of physical, cognitive, social, and sexual development. Data were collected using focus group discussions (FGDs). …

  2. HIV and incarceration: prisons and detention

    The high prevalence of HIV infection among prisoners and pre-trial detainees, combined with overcrowding and sub-standard living conditions sometimes amounting to inhuman or degrading treatment in violation of international law, make prisons and other detention centres a high risk environment for the transmission of HIV. Ultimately, this contributes to HIV epidemics in the communities to which prisoners return upon their release. …

  3. Social and economic determinants of unequal HIV care access among people living with HIV in Peru

    Equity in access to health care among people living with HIV has not been extensively studied in Peru. This research aims to assess the extent to which health care provision for persons living with HIV was equitable and where there was lower access, and the factors associated with lower access. The study was conducted among adult PLHA in four cities in Peru. Between September 2008 and January 2009, 863 individuals from four cities in Peru were enrolled. The study found that transgender identity and age younger than 35 years old, were associated with lower access to health care. …

  4. Scaling up prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission programs in sub-Saharan African countries: a multilevel assessment of site-,program- and country-level determinants of performance

    This study seeks to look at the influence of program-level and contextual determinants that pose a challenge to the uptake of prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission programs in sub-Saharan Africa. This study explore thes multilevel factors associated with "coverage in single dose nevirapine PMTCT programs." The study found that heterogeneity of nevirapine coverage between sites and programs was high- meaning that in these programs there was a high HIV prevalance, a higher proportion of persons with knowledge of PMTCT, and a lower percentage of rural population. …

  5. Methadone maintenance treatment and mortality in HIV-positive people who inject opiods in China

    The objective of the study was to examine the effect of methadone maintenance treatement on mortality in people who inject opiods and who also recieve ART for the treatment of HIV in China. The study took place between December 3, 2002 and December 31, 2011. Mortality, disease and treatment characteristics were compared in patients who received either ART and MMT or only ART. Overall, mortaliy 6 months after starting ART was lwer with ART and MMT than with only ART. …

  6. New Treatment gives hope to East Africa's drug users

    This article is about the national methadone project launched in the United Republic of Tanzania -- the first mainland sub-Saharan country to launch such a program -- as part of a battle to fight heroin addiction and HIV infection. Heroin users contribute to the HIV pandemic in Tanzania by needle sharing, therefore, the idea behind the methadone project is to safely ween heroin users off of the drug. The program is funded by the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, as a response to Tanzania's growing epidemic of people who inject drugs. …

  7. Writing in policy, writing out lives

    In this paper we argue that education policy on HIV and AIDS is policy about life. As such, the contexts and the realities of teachers and learners in the classroom need to be embedded in the policy. We make a case that HIV and AIDS policy needs to extend beyond the prevention mode to one that includes care and support in the policy context. Through the stories of three HIV positive teachers in Zimbabwean primary schools, we show the real people and the real bodies that inhabit the classrooms where policy seeks to find expression. …

  8. Eliminating mother-to-child HIV transmission in South Africa

    This article discusses the effect that the WHO guidelines for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV has had on South Africa. South Africa initiated its PMTCT programme in 2002, however political support for it has increased since 2008. Since then the proportion of HIV-exposed infants who underwent PCR tests to detected early HIV transmission has increased, and the estimated HIV transmission rate has decreased. …

  9. Economic impact of HIV and antiretroviral therapy on education supply in high prevalence regions

    Background: We set out to estimate, for the three geographical regions with the highest HIV prevalence, (sub-Saharan Africa [SSA], the Caribbean and the Greater Mekong sub-region of East Asia), the human resource and economic impact of HIV on the supply of education from 2008 to 2015, the target date for the achievement of Education For All (EFA), contrasting the continuation of access to care, support and Antiretroviral therapy (ART) to the scenario of universal access. …

  10. Access to safe abortion: building choices for women living with HIV and AIDS

    In many areas of the world where HIV prevalence is high, rates of unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortion have also been shown to be high. Of all pregnancies worldwide in 2008, 41% were reported as unintended or unplanned, and approximately 50% of these ended in abortion. …

  11. Rapid psychosocial function screening test identified treatment failure in HIV+ African youth

    Psychosocial dysfunction in older children and adolescents is common and may lead to nonadherence to HIV treatments. Poor adherence leads to HIV treatment failure and the development of resistant virus. In resource-limited settings where treatment options are typically limited to only one or two available lines of therapy, identification of individuals at highest risk of failure before failure occurs is of critical importance. …

  12. HIV serostatus disclosure and lived experiences of adolescents at the Transition Clinic of the Infectious Diseases Clinic in Kampala, Uganda: A qualitative study

    Most studies on HIV serostatus disclosure and adolescents focus on whether, how and when to disclose to adolescents their HIV diagnosis. Fewer studies have examined HIV serostatus disclosure by adolescents who know they are infected with HIV. This study presents qualitative data examining HIV serostatus and treatment disclosure practices and concerns of young people living with HIV in Uganda and the extent to which they are satisfied with current norms around HIV serostatus and treatment disclosure. …

  13. Safety and tolerability of antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected children and adolescents in Uganda

    The objective of this study was to determine the frequency and outcome of ART-related adverse events among patients ages 6 weeks to 18 years. The authors followed up a cohort of 378 HIV-infected children and adolescents who started ART at the Baylor-Uganda Clinic during the period of July 2004 to July 2009. Patients were started on zidovudine or stavudine, plus lamivudine, and efavirenz or nevirapine. Adverse events were recorded as they occurred. Descriptive analyses and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis were carried out. …

  14. Paying to prevent HIV infection in young women?

    Between a quarter and a third of young women in sub-Saharan Africa are infected with HIV by the time they reach their early 20s. Structural factors such as poor education, poverty, and gender and power inequalities are important determinants of young women’s vulnerability to HIV infection. In The Lancet, Sarah Baird and colleagues report the results of a randomised controlled trial done with adolescent girls in rural Malawi, examining the effects of a cash transfer programme on risk of HIV infection. …

  15. Treatment outcomes in HIV-infected adolescents attending a community-based antiretroviral therapy clinic in South Africa

    As the HIV epidemic matures, survival of children with perinatally acquired HIV infection into adolescence is increasingly being documented in sub-Saharan African countries. In addition, the burden of HIV in the adolescent patient population in the region is also due to sexual transmission, with adolescents and young adults being particularly vulnerable to this mode of infection. HIV care and treatment services in the region need to adapt to adequately meet the specific needs of this expanding disease burden among adolescents. …

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