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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Orphans and vulnerable children: Trends in school access and experience in Eastern and Southern Africa

    Across sub-Saharan Africa, the AIDS pandemic has impacted children in a myriad of ways, from parental loss, to HIV infection, to increased poverty and marginalization. These children have been labeled orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) in the international development literature, and a range of interventions have provided services aiming to mitigate the impact of the crisis on human development outcomes, including education. …

  2. The Impact of a Comprehensive Microfinance Intervention on Depression Levels of AIDS-Orphaned Children in Uganda

    The relationship between poverty and mental health functioning is well documented. Poverty affects not only families’ ability to physically care for children, but also families’ stability, functioning, and psychosocial well-being. In this article, we examine the impact of a comprehensive microfinance intervention, intended to reduce the risk of poverty, on depression among adolescent youth who have lost either one or both parents to AIDS.A child who has been affected by AIDS is more likely to have increased levels of anxiety, depression, and reduced self-esteem. …

  3. A novel economic intervention to reduce HIV risks among school-going AIDS orphans in rural Uganda

    This study tested an economic intervention to reduce HIV risks among AIDS-orphaned adolescents. Adolescents (n = 96) were randomly assigned to receive the intervention or usual care for orphans in Uganda. All adolescents in the study received usual care for AIDS orphans in Uganda, which included peer counseling, health education, and scholastic materials. In addition, experimental adolescents received a family economic intervention, which included a Child/Youth Development Account (CDA) and six 2-hour classes on career planning, career goals, microfinance, and financial well-being. …

  4. Orphanhood and completion of compulsory school education among young people in South Africa: findings from a national representative survey

    We examined the association of orphanhood and completion of compulsory school education among young people in South Africa. In South Africa, school attendance is compulsory through grade 9, which should be completed before age 16. However, family and social factors such as orphanhood and poverty can hinder educational attainment. Participants were 10,452 16-24-year-olds who completed a South African national representative household survey. Overall, 23% had not completed compulsory school levels. …

  5. Promoting and protecting the health of orphans and vulnerable children in Monkey Bay, Malawi

    Malawi has had a rising population of orphans and vulnerable children who are reported to lack care, food, educational opportunities and adult role models. Some of the coping strategies used by these children, such as early school dropout and child labour, combined with poor adult support, make them susceptible to risk of early onset of sex and to sexual and reproductive health problems, including HIV infection. …

  6. Development implications of HIV/AIDS, the case of AIDS orphans and caregivers in Addis Ababa

    Children orphaned due to HIV/AIDS are those with broken families, beyond their control they are vulnerable to various kinds of survival and human rights problems. Their problems are so complex, multi-dimensional and very serious and have been increasing in the sub-Saharan Africa. Ethiopia, as one of SSA country, is most seriously affected by the HIV/AIDS pandemic with the estimated number of AIDS orphans between 720,000 to 1,200,000 while this number, in the study area is estimated to be about 20,000 to 30,000. …

  7. The Effect of Orphanhood on Primary School Attendance Reconsidered: the power of female-headed households in Tanzania. Project Results Workshop, University of Dar es Salaam, 10-12 March, 2003

    The common presumption that orphans are less likely to attend school than non-orphans is re-examined using survey data from two regions in Tanzania. It is argued that orphans should not be compared simply with non-orphans since there are other vulnerable groups of children. Further, with particular reference to place of residence, it is argued that orphans should not be viewed as a homogeneous group. …

  8. Socioeconomic disadvantage and unsafe sexual behaviors among young women and men in South Africa

    Recent evidence suggests that the burden of new HIV infections in developing countries is concentrated among young people and females. Even with knowledge of how to protect oneself from infection, such information may not always be usable in daily situations of economic and social disadvantage that characterize the lives of many young people and women in poor countries. …

  9. Scaling-Up the HIV/AIDS and Orphans response to accelerate poverty reduction in Uganda: 2000/1-2005/6

    A list of priority actions developed in March 2000 by the Uganda AIDS Commission and its partners to promote the involvement of all sectors of society as Uganda scales up its response against HIV/AIDS.

  10. Predicting the social consequences of orphanhood in South Africa

    This paper examines and questions the predictions found in the academic and policy literature of social breakdown in Southern Africa in the wake of anticipated high rates of orphanhood caused by the AIDS epidemic. Analysis of the logic underlying these predictions reveals four causal relationships necessary to fulfil such dramatic and apocalyptic predictions:1. High AIDS mortality rates will produce high numbers of orphans.2. These orphans will become children who do not live in appropriate social environments to equip them for adult citizenship.3. …

  11. Poverty, HIV and barriers to education: street children's experiences in Tanzania

    This article discusses the links between poverty, HIV/AIDS, and barriers to education, based on the first-hand experiences of 'street children' in northern Tanzania. Within the context of national levels of poverty, 'cost-sharing' in health and education sectors, and the AIDS epidemic, poor families in Tanzania are under considerable pressure, and increasing numbers of girls and boys are consequently seeking a living independently on the streets of towns and cities. …

  12. Orphanhood and schooling in South Africa: trends in the vulnerability of orphans between 1993 and 2005

    Using eleven nationally representative surveys conducted between 1993 and 2005 this paper assesses the extent to which the vulnerability of orphans to poorer educational outcomes has changed over time as the AIDS crisis deepens in South Africa. This paper seeks to establish whether the fear that extended families are no longer effective safety nets may be overstated or whether traditional coping strategies are indeed breaking down. Patterns of care giving for orphans do appear to be shifting over time but these changes are taking place within the extended family safety net. …

  13. Intersecting Risks: HIV/AIDS and Child Labour

    This paper analyses the mutally reinforcing factors that, as a result of HIV infection among adults, contribute to child labour and may place child workers at risk of HIV infection themselves. In some instances, these contextual factors run parallel; in others, they intersect, thereby putting working children at greater risk of HIV infection or of suffering the consequences of infection.

  14. Children 'in need of care' or in need of cash? Questioning social security provisions for orphans in the context of the South African AIDS pandemic

    In the face of international pressure and local concern regarding the repercussions of the AIDS pandemic for children in South Africa, as well as the review underway of both social assistance and children's legislation in the country, there is much debate regarding appropriate social security provision for children in the context of HIV/AIDS. To date, the focus has primarily been on exploring different mechanisms for the provision of cash grants to children who have been orphaned. …

  15. Addressing the educational needs of orphans and vulnerable children

    This paper was developed by the working group on education and HIV/AIDS and summarises issues raised from a meeting in London on 10 December 2003. The paper describes the educational disadvantage faced by OVC's. It goes on to look at educational responses with a specific focus on three: open and distance learning; school feeding schemes; and the index for inclusion.

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