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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Accessing the ‘right’ kinds of material and symbolic capital: the role of cash transfers in reducing adolescent school absence and risky behaviour in South Africa

    This article investigates how well South Africa’s Child Support Grant (CSG) responds to the material and psychosocial needs of adolescents, and the resultant effects on schooling and risky behaviour. One driver of schooling decisions is shame related to poverty and the ‘social cost’ of school, where a premium must often be paid for fashionable clothes or accessories. The other driver relates to symbolic and consumptive capital gained through engaging in sexual exchange relationships. The anticipated impacts from the CSG are partial because of these non-material drivers of adolescent choices. …

  2. Population Brief

    Articles from this issue : Making sexuality and HIV education programs more effective | Reducing adolescent girls’ vulnerability to sexual violence in sub-Saharan Africa | Developing a highly acceptable contraceptive vaginal ring | Creating a database of HIV prevention clinical trial terminology and translations.

  3. Orphans and vulnerable children: Trends in school access and experience in Eastern and Southern Africa

    Across sub-Saharan Africa, the AIDS pandemic has impacted children in a myriad of ways, from parental loss, to HIV infection, to increased poverty and marginalization. These children have been labeled orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) in the international development literature, and a range of interventions have provided services aiming to mitigate the impact of the crisis on human development outcomes, including education. …

  4. Changes in HIV prevalence among differently educated groups in Tanzania between 2003 and 2007

    Objective: HIV prevalence trends suggest that the epidemic is stable or declining in many sub-Saharan African countries. However, trends might differ between socioeconomic groups. Educational attainment is a common measure of socioeconomic position in HIV datasets from Africa. Several studies have shown higher HIV prevalence among more educated groups, but this may change over time. We describe changes in HIV prevalence by educational attainment in Tanzania from 2003 to 2007. …

  5. The Impact of the HIV/AIDS and Economic Crises on Orphans and Other Vulnerable children in Zimbabwe

    Zimbabwe, like most of Sub-Saharian Africa, has been hard-hit by HIV/AIDS. National estimates reported by the Ministry of Health and Child Welfare put the prevalence rates of HIV in the age group between 15 and 49 at 15.3% (WHO, UNICEF, & UNAIDS, 2008). This is one of the highest HIV/AIDS prevalence rates in the world (UNAIDS, 2008). The impact of the pandemic has been so severe that current mitigation efforts fall short of alleviating the situation, especially as it pertains to the plight of children. …

  6. Can we use young people’s knowledge to develop teachers and HIV-related education?

    Despite recent progress in meeting the goals of the Education for All agenda, certain groups of young people are particularly vulnerable to exclusion and underachievement, including children with HIV/AIDS, children living in poverty, and children with disabilities. HIV/AIDS has reduced many young people’s rights to access education, to live a full and healthy life, and to have a life as a child. …

  7. A novel economic intervention to reduce HIV risks among school-going AIDS orphans in rural Uganda

    This study tested an economic intervention to reduce HIV risks among AIDS-orphaned adolescents. Adolescents (n = 96) were randomly assigned to receive the intervention or usual care for orphans in Uganda. All adolescents in the study received usual care for AIDS orphans in Uganda, which included peer counseling, health education, and scholastic materials. In addition, experimental adolescents received a family economic intervention, which included a Child/Youth Development Account (CDA) and six 2-hour classes on career planning, career goals, microfinance, and financial well-being. …

  8. As simple as ABC? How rural ABET Centres respond to HIV/AIDS

    This article investigates the ways in which two rural Adult Basic Education and Training (ABET) Centres in the Limpopo Province address the challenges of HIV/AIDS. Theories of social capital are used to explain the different responses of the Centres. The communities surrounding both Centres face similar structural problems of poverty, unemployment, migrancy, gender inequality, poor health and low levels of education. In one Centre, educators and learners denied that HIV/AIDS was a serious issue. …

  9. Orphanhood and completion of compulsory school education among young people in South Africa: findings from a national representative survey

    We examined the association of orphanhood and completion of compulsory school education among young people in South Africa. In South Africa, school attendance is compulsory through grade 9, which should be completed before age 16. However, family and social factors such as orphanhood and poverty can hinder educational attainment. Participants were 10,452 16-24-year-olds who completed a South African national representative household survey. Overall, 23% had not completed compulsory school levels. …

  10. The impact of HIV/AIDS on poverty and education in Africa

    This article deals with the impact of the HIV/AIDS pandemic on poverty and education in Africa. It considers the scale and scope of the pandemic and its anticipated impact on education systems in heavily infected sub-Saharan African countries. It looks for lessons derived from twenty years of coping with HIV/AIDS in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) region. …

  11. Emerging Voices: A Report on Education in South African Rural Communities

    This report acknowledges the voices of members of rural communities across South Africa, and ensures that policies undertaken to improve the quality of rural education are informed by the powerful insights of the people in those communities. The research for this book aimed to find out what the rural poor experience as education and what these communities think should be done to deal with the problems of education in the context of rural poverty.

  12. Working-age adult mortality and primary school attendance in rural Kenya

    The rapid increase in adult mortality due to the AIDS epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa raises great concern about potential intergenerational effects on children. This article estimates the impact of AIDS-related adult mortality on primary school attendance in rural Kenya using a panel of 1,266 households surveyed in 1997, 2000, and 2002. The paper distinguishes between effects on boys' and girls' education to understand potential gender differences resulting from adult mortality. We also estimate how adult mortality affects child schooling before as well as after the death occurs. …

  13. Where have all the flowers gone? A preliminary analysis of the decline in first year school enrolment in KwaZulu Natal and possible links to HIV/AIDS

    Enrolment is the single most important statistic in education, given its impact on every other element of supply and demand. The purpose of the analysis is to explore possible reasons forthe decline in first year school enrolment in KwaZulu Natal and suggest that the impact of HIV/AIDS may be a significant factor. It will also argue that if indeed HIV/AIDS is partially or even largely responsible for the decline, it is first and foremost a management issue of the greatest importance, irrespective of the problem's source. …

  14. The education sectors' responses to the needs and vulnerabilities of children affected by HIV/AIDS

    Education is a crucial factor in the development of a child. In the light of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, education has become even more vital. The paradox, nevertheless, is that the pandemic has constrained school attendance, as well as school performance. The purpose of this study was to establish to what extent primary school-aged children affected by HIV/AIDS (CABA) are educationally affected, as well as to find out how the education sector is responding to the problems CABA face. …

  15. The construction of gender in times of change: a case study of school-based HIV/AIDS education in Kilimanjaro

    This case study utilized qualitative and quantitative methods to examine how gender, power and HIV/AIDS merge to create situations of risk and vulnerability for young people in the Kilimanjaro region, Tanzania. Questionnaires were collected from 160 secondary school students, while qualitative data came from 3 focus group discussions (one mixed and two single sex), interviews with one male and one female parent, one male and one female teacher, and an educational representative, in addition to observation. …

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