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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. The Effect of Orphanhood on Primary School Attendance Reconsidered: the power of female-headed households in Tanzania. Project Results Workshop, University of Dar es Salaam, 10-12 March, 2003

    The common presumption that orphans are less likely to attend school than non-orphans is re-examined using survey data from two regions in Tanzania. It is argued that orphans should not be compared simply with non-orphans since there are other vulnerable groups of children. Further, with particular reference to place of residence, it is argued that orphans should not be viewed as a homogeneous group. …

  2. Socioeconomic disadvantage and unsafe sexual behaviors among young women and men in South Africa

    Recent evidence suggests that the burden of new HIV infections in developing countries is concentrated among young people and females. Even with knowledge of how to protect oneself from infection, such information may not always be usable in daily situations of economic and social disadvantage that characterize the lives of many young people and women in poor countries. …

  3. Scaling-Up the HIV/AIDS and Orphans response to accelerate poverty reduction in Uganda: 2000/1-2005/6

    A list of priority actions developed in March 2000 by the Uganda AIDS Commission and its partners to promote the involvement of all sectors of society as Uganda scales up its response against HIV/AIDS.

  4. Predicting the social consequences of orphanhood in South Africa

    This paper examines and questions the predictions found in the academic and policy literature of social breakdown in Southern Africa in the wake of anticipated high rates of orphanhood caused by the AIDS epidemic. Analysis of the logic underlying these predictions reveals four causal relationships necessary to fulfil such dramatic and apocalyptic predictions:1. High AIDS mortality rates will produce high numbers of orphans.2. These orphans will become children who do not live in appropriate social environments to equip them for adult citizenship.3. …

  5. Poverty, HIV and barriers to education: street children's experiences in Tanzania

    This article discusses the links between poverty, HIV/AIDS, and barriers to education, based on the first-hand experiences of 'street children' in northern Tanzania. Within the context of national levels of poverty, 'cost-sharing' in health and education sectors, and the AIDS epidemic, poor families in Tanzania are under considerable pressure, and increasing numbers of girls and boys are consequently seeking a living independently on the streets of towns and cities. …

  6. Orphanhood and schooling in South Africa: trends in the vulnerability of orphans between 1993 and 2005

    Using eleven nationally representative surveys conducted between 1993 and 2005 this paper assesses the extent to which the vulnerability of orphans to poorer educational outcomes has changed over time as the AIDS crisis deepens in South Africa. This paper seeks to establish whether the fear that extended families are no longer effective safety nets may be overstated or whether traditional coping strategies are indeed breaking down. Patterns of care giving for orphans do appear to be shifting over time but these changes are taking place within the extended family safety net. …

  7. Intersecting Risks: HIV/AIDS and Child Labour

    This paper analyses the mutally reinforcing factors that, as a result of HIV infection among adults, contribute to child labour and may place child workers at risk of HIV infection themselves. In some instances, these contextual factors run parallel; in others, they intersect, thereby putting working children at greater risk of HIV infection or of suffering the consequences of infection.

  8. Excluded and invisible. The state of the world's children 2006

    This year, The State of theWorld's Children will focus on the millions of children for whom these pledges of a better world remain unfulfilled. The report assesses global efforts to realize the MDGs, the central development targets of the agenda, and demonstrates the marked impact that their achievement would have on children's lives and future generations. It also explains how, with the MDGs focused on national averages, children in marginalized communities risk missing out on essential services such as health care, education and protection. …

  9. Children 'in need of care' or in need of cash? Questioning social security provisions for orphans in the context of the South African AIDS pandemic

    In the face of international pressure and local concern regarding the repercussions of the AIDS pandemic for children in South Africa, as well as the review underway of both social assistance and children's legislation in the country, there is much debate regarding appropriate social security provision for children in the context of HIV/AIDS. To date, the focus has primarily been on exploring different mechanisms for the provision of cash grants to children who have been orphaned. …

  10. Addressing the educational needs of orphans and vulnerable children

    This paper was developed by the working group on education and HIV/AIDS and summarises issues raised from a meeting in London on 10 December 2003. The paper describes the educational disadvantage faced by OVC's. It goes on to look at educational responses with a specific focus on three: open and distance learning; school feeding schemes; and the index for inclusion.

  11. A Situation Analysis of Orphan Children in Namibia

    The purpose of the study was to analyse and provide an understanding of the present situation of orphaned children in the country.The study report and recommendations will be used by different sectors of the society, including Government, non-governmental organizations, community-based organizations, civil society and others to address issues such as: Policy development that needs to address not only material or physical rights but also knowledge and skills as well as psychosocial care; Putting support systems in place to help families and communities cope with caring for their orphaned childr …

  12. A Family is for a Lifetime: A discussion of the need for family care for children impacted by HIV/AIDS

    Part 1 of the document discusses the need for family care of children impacted by HIV/AIDS by looking at the universal standards of care, poverty, national policy and donor education. The document acknowledges the fact that there is no ideal solution to losing a parent but only better or worse alternatives and further says that the response to such loss matters a great deal to separated and orphaned children. Part 2 of the document contains an annotated bibliography on children without parental care.

  13. Gender Inequalities in primary Schooling: The roles of poverty and adverse cultural practice

    This paper suggests a simple model for the relationships between poverty, schooling and gender inequality. It argues that poverty at both national and household levels is associated with an under-enrolment of school age children, but that the gendered outcomes of such under enrolment are the product of cultural practice, rather than poverty per se. Using detailed case study material from two African countries, evidence is presented to show the variety and extent of adverse cultural practice which impede the attendance and performance of girls at school, relative to boys. …

  14. HIV/AIDS and child labour in Zambia: A rapid assessment on the case of the Lusaka, Copperbelt and Eastern Provinces No.5

    This is a report that aims at examining correlations between the HIV AIDS pandemic and child labour in Zambia. It assesses the extend to which HIV AIDS has had an impact on child labour. It analyses the impact of HIV/AIDS related child labour on the welfare of children, health, education. It assesses gender issues, survival strategies of girls and boys, child labourers awareness and knowledge of HIV. The data is useful for policy and provides intervention strategies on behalf of child labourers. This research was conducted in three provinces; Copperbelt, Eastern, and Lusaka. …

  15. HIV/AIDS, Poverty and Education: The circle of hope and despair

    This article concerns the impact that HIV/Aids, as a pandemic, is having on education, within the context of the poverty discourse. It considers the scale and scope of the pandemic and its anticipated impact on education systems in heavily-infected sub-Saharan countries. It looks for lessons derived from twenty years of coping with HIV/Aids in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) region. …

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