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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. What they really want to know. Developing booklets for young people on growing up and sexuality

    A large proportion of young people worldwide are sexually active, and this exposes them to the risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, and to the risk of unintended pregnancies. In 2008, 16 million girls aged 15 to 19 gave birth and approximately 40% of these pregnancies were unintended. Young people between the ages of 15 and 24 years account for more than one third of all new HIV infections, with some 3,000 young people becoming infected with HIV each day. …

  2. Imagined futures VI: checks and balances. Conference report

    This document is a report of a two days conference, "Checks and balances", aimed to explore mechanisms ensuring the balancing of power and the accountability by the stakeholders – the institutions and students. The sessions included: changing dynamics of HIV/AIDS in a university setting, teenage pregnancy at institutions of higher learning, and service provider accountability. The conference closed with a partnership statement on sexual and reproductive rights and health.

  3. Consequences of sex education on teen and young adult sexual behaviors and outcomes

    This study examined whether formal sex education is associated with sexual health behaviors and outcomes using recent nationally representative survey data. Data used were from 4,691 male and female individuals aged 15–24 years from the 2006–2008 National Survey of Family Growth. Receipt of sex education, regardless of type, was associated with delays in first sex for both genders, as compared with receiving no sex education. …

  4. Reproductive rights: a tool for monitoring state obligations

    This Monitoring Tool provides a means for human rights experts responsible for overseeing compliance with international legal standards on human rights to monitor the implementation of specific State obligations in the field of reproductive rights. The tool outlines State obligations under international and regional human rights law on a range of reproductive rights issues–freedom from discrimination, contraceptive information and services, safe pregnancy and childbirth, abortion and post-abortion care, comprehensive sexuality education, freedom from violence against women, and HIV/AIDS. …

  5. Linking sexual and reproductive health and HIV/AIDS. Gateways to integration: a case study from Swaziland

    This document is in three parts. It first discusses the 4 prongs for the elimination of HIV infection among children; in other words, the 4 prongs of PMTCT. The 4 prongs are: (1) preventing unintended pregnancies among women living with HIV, (2) preventing new HIV infections, (3) safer infant feedings, and (4) treatment. This document focuses primarily on the first 2 prongs and how PMTCT is critical because the impact of keeping children alive will be lost if their mothers are not also kept alive. …

  6. The sexual behaviour of adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa: patterns and trends from national surveys

    Objectives: To describe the sexual and reproductive behaviour of adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly 15- to 19-year-olds. Methods: Using DHS/AIS data (2000–2010), nine indicators of adolescent behaviour and one of adult attitudes towards condom education for adolescents were described for 24 countries. Indicators were disaggregated by gender, urban/rural residency and educational status, and time trends were described. Results: Up to 25% of 15- to 19-year-olds reported sex before age 15; this proportion shrank over time in many countries. …

  7. Access to safe abortion: building choices for women living with HIV and AIDS

    In many areas of the world where HIV prevalence is high, rates of unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortion have also been shown to be high. Of all pregnancies worldwide in 2008, 41% were reported as unintended or unplanned, and approximately 50% of these ended in abortion. …

  8. Preventing HIV and unintended pregnancies: strategic framework 2011–2015

    This framework supports the 'Global Plan Towards the Elimination of New HIV Infections among Children by 2015 and Keeping their Mothers Alive'. It is a product of The Inter-agency Task Team (IATT) for Prevention and Treatment of HIV Infection in Pregnant Women, Mothers, and their Children and was developed by the IATT Working Group on Primary Prevention of HIV and the Prevention of Unintended Pregnancies in Women Living with HIV (now included with the Integration Working Group under the re-configured IATT). It offers guidance to: 1. …

  9. WHO guidelines on preventing early pregnancy and poor reproductive outcomes among adolescents in developing countries

    These guidelines provide recommendations on action and research for a) preventing early pregnancy: by preventing marriage before 18 years of age; by increasing knowledge and understanding of the importance of pregnancy prevention; by increasing the use of contraception; and by preventing coerced sex; and b) preventing poor reproductive outcomes: by reducing unsafe abortions; and by increasing the use of skilled antenatal, childbirth and postnatal care. …

  10. Mother-daughter communication about sexual maturation, abstinence and unintended pregnancy: Experiences form an informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya

    Parental communication and support is associated with improved developmental, health and behavioral outcomes in adolescence. This study explores the quality of mother-daughter communication about sexual maturation, abstinence and unintended pregnancy in Korogocho, an informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. We use data from 14 focus group discussions (n = 124) and 25 interviews with girls aged 12-17, mothers of teenage girls, and key informant teachers. …

  11. Adolescent Fertility in Low-and Middle-Income Countries: Effects and Solutions

    Adolescent fertility in low- and middle-income countries presents a severe impediment to development and can lead to school dropout, lost productivity, and the intergenerational transmission of poverty. However, there is debate about whether adolescent pregnancy is a problem in and of itself or merely symptomatic of deeper, ingrained disadvantage. To inform policy choices and create a revised research agenda for population and development, this paper aggregates recent quantitative evidence on the socioeconomic consequences of and methods to reduce of teenage pregnancy in the developing world. …

  12. Youth and unsafe abortion: a global snapshot

    Worldwide, approximately 16 million women and girls ages 15 to 19 give birth each year, accounting for approximately 11 percent of all births worldwide. For these young women, complications from pregnancy and childbirth are the leading cause of death, and unsafe abortion is a major contributor to this mortality. This brief provides an overview of unsafe abortion among young women. …

  13. Expanding access to comprehensive reproductive health and HIV information and services for married adolescent girls in Nyanza Province

    Nyanza Province has been a focus of heightened attention in Kenya since the advent of the country’s HIV epidemic. …

  14. Assessing knowledge, attitude, and practice of emergency contraception: a cross-sectional study among Ethiopian undergraduate female students

    The importance of Emergency contraception (EC) is evident in preventing unintended pregnancies and its ill consequences like unintended child delivery or unsafe abortion, which are the most common causes of maternal mortality. Knowing that Ethiopia is one of the countries with highest maternal mortality rate, this study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of EC, and to further elucidate the relationship between these factors and some socioeconomic and demographic characteristics among female undergraduate students of Addis Ababa University. …

  15. Human capital consequences of teenage childbearing in South Africa

    Women in South Africa have had fewer children on average since the 1970s, but the rate of teenage childbearing in South Africa has remained the same. Large numbers of young mothers are a cause for social concern in South Africa and other countries because of the adverse impact of teenage childbearing on the education and health of teen mothers and their children. …

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