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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. The effects of adolescent childbearing on literacy and numeracy in Bangladesh, Malawi, and Zambia

    Global investments in girls’ education have been motivated, in part, by an expectation that more-educated women will have smaller and healthier families. However, in many low- and middle-income countries, the timing of school dropout and first birth coincide, resulting in a rapid transition from the role of student to the role of mother for adolescent girls. Despite growing interest in the effects of pregnancy on levels of school dropout, researchers have largely overlooked the potential effect of adolescent childbearing on literacy and numeracy. …

  2. Trends of sexual and reproductive health behaviors among youth in the Philippines: further analysis of the 2008, 2013, and 2017 national demographic and health surveys

    This report examines the trends of sexual and reproductive health behavior over a 9-year period (2008-2017) in the Philippines. The analysis utilizes data from three nationally representative household surveys conducted by The Demographic and Health Surveys Program in 2008, 2013, and 2017. …

  3. Effectiveness of a community based intervention to delay early marriage, early pregnancy and improve school retention among adolescents in India

    Child marriage is being increasingly recognized globally as a fundamental violation of human rights. Child marriages occur globally in varying degrees across countries and regions. South Asia alone accounted for almost half of the total number of child marriages that have occurred globally. Early marriage can lead to serious ramifications such as school drop-out, early pregnancy, maternal morbidity and mortality. …

  4. Abortion and unintended pregnancy in six Indian states: findings and implications for policies and programs

    This report summarizes 2015 state-level findings from a large-scale study of six Indian states titled Unintended Pregnancy and Abortion in India (UPAI). Focusing on Assam, Bihar, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Tamil Nadu, the report estimates the incidence of abortions occurring in facility and nonfacility settings. …

  5. The sexual and reproductive health and rights of young people in India: a review of the situation

    This paper synthesises the evidence on sexual and reproductive health situation of young people in India, sheds light on those sub-populations of young people who are most vulnerable to adverse sexual and reproductive outcomes, and assesses the barriers that compromise the sexual and reproductive health and rights of young people at the individual and family levels, as well as at the programme delivery level.

  6. Sexual and reproductive health of adolescents and youth in Cambodia: analysis of 2000-2014 Cambodia Demographic and Health survey data

    This report presents findings from a secondary analysis of four waves of the Cambodia Demographic and Health Surveys, 2000 to 2014, with support from the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and Australian in Cambodia. One aim of this report was to describe the current state of the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents and youth in Cambodia and this was achieved through the analysis of data on young women aged 15-24 years from the four Cambodian Demographic and Health Surveys (CDHS) conducted in 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2014. …

  7. Myanmar. Demographic and Health Survey 2015-16. Key indicators report

    The 2015-16 Myanmar Demographic and Health Survey (MDHS) is the first Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) conducted in Myanmar. The primary objective of the 2015-16 MDHS project is to provide up-to-date estimates of basic demographic and health indicators. …

  8. Situation analysis of adolescent pregnancy in Thailand. Synthesis report 2015

    This situation analysis documents current trends in adolescent pregnancy/parenthood; summarizes key laws and policies impacting adolescent pregnancy in Thailand; identifies key drivers of vulnerability to inform prevention and care seeking efforts; maps potential partners; and identifies best practices (e.g., pregnancy prevention, interventions, and linkages to care and services) and entry points for a cross-sectoral approach. The findings of this study are intended for staff of the United Nations Children’s Fund, partner organizations, United Nations agencies and policymakers.

  9. Teenage marriage, fertility, and well-being: panel evidence from India

    This paper uses a unique dataset from Andhra Pradesh, tracking a cohort of children who were born in 1994–95 from the ages of 8 to 19 years, to ask three key questions about teenage marriage and fertility in India. First, what predicts getting married during the teen years? Second, what predicts having given birth by 19? …

  10. Factors shaping trajectories to child and early marriage: evidence from Young Lives in India

    The 2011 Census in India reported that nearly 17 million children between the ages of 10 and 19 –6% of the age group – are married, with girls constituting the majority (76 per cent), although there has been a significant relative reduction in the marriage of girls under 14. The aim of this paper is to better understand the individual, household and community factors that explain the different pathways to marriage among Young Lives children, drawing upon both descriptive statistics from the household survey as well as in-depth qualitative research with the study children.

  11. Tackling child marriage and early childbearing in India: lessons from Young Lives

    The Government of India has made combatting child marriage and early childbearing a priority. This brief uses data collected from 1,000 19-year-olds in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana to help inform policy and programming efforts. In Young Lives survey, 28% of girls and just 1% of boys married before the age of 18. By the age of 19, a majority (59%) of married young women had already given birth. Young Lives has been following the lives of these young people and their families since 2002. …

  12. Scaling up of life skills based education in Pakistan: a case study

    Young people between the ages of 10 and 19 make up 23% of Pakistan's population. In Pakistan, young people face many challenges in terms of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) issues. These include early marriage and pregnancy, low use of contraception, use of unsafe abortion, lack of relevant information and poor knowledge about bodily development including puberty and menstruation, sexuality, reproduction and HIV. …

  13. Addressing early marriage and adolescent pregnancy as a barrier to gender parity and equality in education

    Despite progress in expanding access to education for girls globally, important barriers remain. Girls’ success in school – and after leaving school – is determined in part by characteristics of and factors in her household and community. Many policies and programs are based on an assumption that continued progress toward gender equality in education is hampered by early marriage and adolescent pregnancy. While education and age at marriage (and pregnancy) are positively correlated in many settings, evidence of a causal relationship is more limited. …

  14. Adolescent pregnancy in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

    Although the countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia are not affected to the same extent as other world regions, adolescent pregnancy is a major challenge in parts of the region, and in particular among some population groups. The State of World Population 2013, published by UNFPA, the United Nations Population Fund, highlights the main challenges of adolescent pregnancy and its serious impacts on girls’ education, health and long-term employment opportunities. The report also shows what can be done to curb this trend and protect girls’ human rights and well-being. …

  15. Assessing young unmarried men's access to reproductive health information and services in rural India

    The authors conducted a cross-sectional study using both qualitative and quantitative methods. Participants included 38 unmarried rural men in four focus-group discussions and a representative sample of 316 similarly profiled men, ages 17-22 years. Information was collected via survey on the men's socioeconomic characteristics; awareness, knowledge, and perceptions of family planning; attitudes toward future contraceptive use; intra-family communication; knowledge about STIs/HIV/AIDS; and access and use of condoms. …

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