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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. HIV and education: Guaranteeing lessons for all. Research into the provision of relationships and sexual health education in Scotland

    There is now consensus among Scotland's third sector children's rights, women's rights and young people's and equality organisations that RSHP lessons urgently need to be improved. Comprehensive sexuality education is essential for young people to be able to protect themselves from unwanted pregnancy, HIV and sexually transmitted infections, to Evidence emonstrates that young gay and bisexual men in Scotland are at higher risk of HIV as a consequence of having poor knowledge about HIV risk. …

  2. Education, HIV, and early fertility: experimental evidence from Kenya

    A seven-year randomized evaluation suggests education subsidies reduce adolescent girls’ dropout, pregnancy, and marriage but not sexually transmitted infection (STI). The government’s HIV curriculum, which stresses abstinence until marriage, does not reduce pregnancy or STI. Both programs combined reduce STI more, but cut dropout and pregnancy less, than education subsidies alone. …

  3. A farewell to abstinence and fidelity? Comment

    Sex has regularly proven to be a polarising issue for the UN Member States, and the 2016 High-Level Meeting on Ending AIDS on June 8–10 was no exception. The Political Declaration adopted at the meeting addresses the sexual health needs of young people (15–24 years), including adolescents (11–19 years). 2000 new HIV infections occur among young people every day. HIV is the leading cause of death among adolescents in Africa, and the second-highest cause of death worldwide in this age group. …

  4. Rising school enrollment and declining HIV and pregnancy risk among adolescents in Rakai district, Uganda, 1994–2013

    Background: Poverty, family stability, and social policies influence the ability of adolescents to attend school. Likewise, being enrolled in school may shape an adolescent’s risk for HIV and pregnancy. We identified trends in school enrollment, factors predicting school enrollment (antecedents), and health risks associated with staying in or leaving school (consequences). Methods: Data from the Rakai Community Cohort Study (RCCS) were examined for adolescents 15–19 years (n = 21,735 person-rounds) from 1994 to 2013. …

  5. Relative Risks and the Market for Sex: Teenagers, Sugar Daddies and HIV in Kenya

    An information campaign that provided Kenyan teenagers in randomly selected schools with the information that HIV prevalence was much higher among adult men and their partners than among teenage boys led to a 65% decrease in the incidence of pregnancies by adult partners among teenage girls in the treatment group relative to the comparison. This suggests a large reduction in the incidence of unprotected cross-generational sex. The information campaign did not increase pregnancies among teenage couples. …

  6. Education, HIV, and early fertility: experimental evidence from Kenya

    We provide experimental evidence on the relationships between education, HIV/AIDS education, risky behavior and early fertility in Kenya. We exploit randomly assigned variation in the cost of schooling and in exposure to the national HIV/AIDS prevention curriculum for a cohort of over 19,000 adolescents in Western Kenya, originally aged 13.5 on average. We collected data on the schooling, marriage, and fertility out-comes of these students over 7 years, and tested them for HIV and Herpes (HSV2) after 7 years. …

  7. Teacher training and HIV/AIDS prevention in West Africa: regression discontinuity design evidence from the Cameroon

    The authors assess the impact on teenage childbearing as well as student knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of a typical HIV/AIDS teacher training program in the Cameroon. Applying a regression discontinuity design identification strategy based on the key administrative criterion that determined program deployment, they find that 15–17 year old girls in teacher training schools are between 7 and 10 percentage points less likely to have started childbearing, an objective proxy for the incidence of unprotected sex. …

  8. The effect of educational attainment and other factors on HIV risk in South African women: results from antenatal surveillance, 2000-2005

    Objectives: To assess the effect of educational attainment and other factors on the risk of HIV in pregnant South African women. Design: Repeated cross-sectional surveys. Methods: Pregnant women attending public antenatal clinics were tested for HIV annually between 2000 and 2005, and provided demographic information. Logistic regression models were applied separately to the data collected in each year, to identify factors associated with HIV infection. Data from all years were combined in a logistic regression model that tested for trends in HIV prevalence. …

  9. Linking sexual and reproductive health and HIV/AIDS. Gateways to integration: a case study from Swaziland

    This document is in three parts. It first discusses the 4 prongs for the elimination of HIV infection among children; in other words, the 4 prongs of PMTCT. The 4 prongs are: (1) preventing unintended pregnancies among women living with HIV, (2) preventing new HIV infections, (3) safer infant feedings, and (4) treatment. This document focuses primarily on the first 2 prongs and how PMTCT is critical because the impact of keeping children alive will be lost if their mothers are not also kept alive. …

  10. Expanding access to comprehensive reproductive health and HIV information and services for married adolescent girls in Nyanza Province

    Nyanza Province has been a focus of heightened attention in Kenya since the advent of the country’s HIV epidemic. …

  11. The application of Intervention Mapping in developing and implementing school-based sexuality and HIV/AIDS education in a developing country context: the case of Tanzania

    Effective sexuality and HIV/AIDS education programmes are needed to protect young people against HIV/AIDS and teenage pregnancy in Tanzania and other Sub-Saharan African countries. Using a theory- and evidence-based approach and adapting the programmes to local contexts, increases the effectiveness of these programmes. This paper describes and discusses the challenges and opportunities concerning the application of Intervention Mapping (IM) in the development and implementation of a sexuality and HIV/AIDS education programme targeting young people aged 12-14 in Tanzania. …

  12. Universities and HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa: University of Zambia

    This case study on the University of Zambia aimed at answering the following questions: In what ways has the University of Zambia been affected by HIV/AIDS? How has the university responded to these impacts? What steps is the university taking to control and limit the further spread of HIV/AIDS in its community? What HIV/AIDS-related teaching, research, publication, and advisory services has the university undertaken? How does the university propose to anticipate and address the larger impact of HIV/AIDS on the national labour market for university graduates? …

  13. In the absence of marriage: long-term concurrent partnerships, pregnancy, and HIV risk dynamics among South African young adults

    In KwaZulu/Natal, South Africa, where HIV prevalence is among the world's highest, a longitudinal qualitative study of partnership dynamics and HIV preventive behaviors was conducted. 47 young adults aged 18-24 participated in in-depth interviews, and 29 were re-interviewed 2 years later. Five analytical domains emerged: primary partnerships, love and romance; secondary partnerships; pregnancy/parenthood; condom use/prevention; and contextual influences, including schooling and future aspirations. …

  14. Non-consensual sex, school enrolment and education outcomes in South Africa

    Sexual violence is a significant problem in South Africa. Such encounters bring psychological trauma, social stigma, and the risk of pregnancy, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Existing qualitative research indicates that survivors have difficulty concentrating on school-work, with many reportedly losing interest and some leaving school. The relationship between these experiences and school enrolment and educational attainment has not been quantified in sub-Saharan Africa. …

  15. ¿Qué sirve mejor en la enseñanza sobre la sexualidad y el VIH?

    Los programas educativos sobre la sexualidad y el VIH tienen varias metas: disminuir los embarazos no planeados, reducir las enfermedades de transmisión sexual (ETS) incluyendo la del VIH y mejorar la salud sexual de los jóvenes. Algunos de los numerosos factores que influyen en la conducta sexual y el uso de protección entre los adolescentes tienen poco que ver con las relaciones sexuales, por ejemplo: la crianza en una comunidad desfavorecida, la falta de apego a los padres o el fracaso escolar. …

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