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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Young people's sexual health in South Africa: HIV prevalence and sexual behaviors from a nationally representative household surevy

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of HIV infection, HIV risk factors, and exposure to national HIV prevention programs, and to identify factors associated with HIV infection among South African youth, aged 15–24 years. Design: A cross-sectional, nationally representative, household survey. Methods: From March to August 2003 we conducted a national survey of HIV prevalence and sexual behavior among 11 904 15–24 year olds. Multivariable models for HIV infection were restricted to sexually experienced youth. …

  2. HIV prevalence among high school learners - opportunities for schools-based HIV testing programmes and sexual reproductive health services

    Young girls in sub Saharan Africa are reported to have higher rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection compared to boys in the same age group. Knowledge of HIV status amongst high schools learners provides an important gateway to prevention and treatment services. This study aimed at determining the HIV prevalence and explored the feasibility of HIV testing among high school learners. Between September 2010 and February 2011, a linked, anonymous cross-sectional survey was conducted in two public sector high schools in the rural KwaZulu-Natal midlands. …

  3. HIV infection and sexual risk behaviour among youth who have experienced orphanhood: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Background: Previous research has suggested that orphaned children and adolescents might have elevated risk for HIV infection. We examined the state of evidence regarding the association between orphan status and HIV risk in studies of youth aged 24 years and younger. Methods: Using systematic review methodology, we identified 10 studies reporting data from 12 countries comparing orphaned and non-orphaned youth on HIV-related risk indicators, including HIV serostatus, other sexually transmitted infections, pregnancy and sexual behaviours. …

  4. HIV, syphilis infection, and risky sexual behaviors among male university students who have sex with men in Beijing, China: a cross-sectional study

    Young male university students who have sex with men are at high risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The authors conducted a cross-sectional survey to assess the prevalence of risky sexual behaviors, HIV, and syphilis among male university students who have sex with men in Beijing, China; and to identify risk factors for unprotected anal intercourse (UAI). Among 157 study participants, HIV and syphilis prevalence were 2.5% and 7.0%, respectively. The authors found a high prevalence of UAI in the study population. …

  5. Effects of neighbourhood-level educational attainment on HIV prevalence among young women in Zambia

    This study looked at linkages between neighborhood educational attainment and HIV prevalence among young women in urban and rural areas of Zambia. Using cross-sectional survey data from 2003, 1295 women were identified from 10 urban and 10 rural clusters. A neighbourhood-level educational attainment measure was constructed by aggregating individual-level years in school. Adjustment was made for certain variables (education, currently a student, marital status, ever given birth, sexual activity, lifetime sexual partners). …

  6. A population based survey on HIV prevalence in Nagaland, India

    The primary aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of HIV infection in Nagaland and to study knowledge and attitude of study participants towards HIV/AIDS and related Government programs. A population based survey was carried out during April-October, 2007. Stratified sampling technique was adopted with an anonymous, linked design for HIV testing using Dried Blood Spot Testing Method (Tri-Dot). A total of 1965 households were interviewed in which 5661 eligible respondents (male:15-54 years and female:15-49 years) completed the interview. …

  7. HIV and emergencies: one size does not fit all

    The dynamics and impact of HIV in humanitarian crises are complex. They depend on the kind of crisis: is it the result of conflict, a rapid-onset natural disaster (such as a flood or cyclone), or a slow-onset emergency caused by drought or environmental degradation? It also depends on the HIV prevalence rate before the crisis, the political situation, the scale and duration of the crisis, the existing infrastructure and services and the level of awareness of HIV. Case studies from five countries facing very different emergencies and HIV prevalence rates were backed by a literature review. …

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