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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Previous reproductive history and post-natal family planning among HIV-infected women in Ukraine

    This document describes post-natal family planning practices among HIV-positive childbearing women in Ukraine.

  2. The HIV/AIDS Pandemic in Comparative Perspective: The Cases of India and Russia

    After examining the history of HIV/AIDS in Russia and India, the article examines the present prevalence of, and future projections for, HIV/AIDS in both countries. It also discusses the economic, political, and social consequences of the pandemic in either region, while evaluating the effectiveness of the Indian and Russian governmental attempts to stem the health crisis. The article concludes with certain policy recommendations for the target countries' respective governments.

  3. Multicity HIV seroprevalence in street youth, Ukraine

    The authors conducted the first systematic, community-based, multicity assessment outside of the United States of HIV seroprevalence, risk factors, and linkage to clinical services among 929 street youth. After city-wide mapping, the authors used time-location sampling and randomly selected 74 venues in Odesa, Kyiv and Donetsk, Ukraine. Rapid HIV testing with post-test counseling were offered to all eligible youths ages 15-24 years. Overall, 18.4% were HIV positive and 85% had a previously unknown status. Rates were identical by sex. …

  4. Concurrent Sexual Partnerships and HIV Infection: Evidence from National Population-Based Surveys

    Knowing the prevalence and correlates of multiple and concurrent sexual partnerships is important for understanding the dynamics of HIV transmission, and thus for developing effective prevention interventions. This study takes advantage of self-reported data on sexual partnerships and biomarker data on HIV serostatus that have been collected in recent years from adult women and men (age 15-49) by nationally representative Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and AIDS Indicator Surveys (AIS). …

  5. The sexual and reproductive health of young people in Latin America: Evidence from WHO case studies

    This original article addresses the sexual and reproductive health needs of young people aged 15 to 24 in Latin America. It introduces five articles from original research projects in three countries: Argentina, Brazil, and Peru. These projects were funded by the World Health Organization. This article explains the importance of studies that address the sexual and reproductive health of young people in developing countries. It provides an overview of sexual and reproductive health issues in Latin America and a discussion these issues in the three study countries.

  6. HIV in the Middle East

    HIV in the Middle East is a short article written by C. Makhlouf Obermeyer from the Department of HIV/AIDS of the WHO in Geneva, Switzerland, in 2006. It summarizes what is known about the HIV epidemic in the Middle East and north Africa region and examines the extent to which lower prevalence can be attributed to cultural factors, particularly those related to the practice of Islam and gender. …

  7. A population based survey on HIV prevalence in Nagaland, India

    The primary aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of HIV infection in Nagaland and to study knowledge and attitude of study participants towards HIV/AIDS and related Government programs. A population based survey was carried out during April-October, 2007. Stratified sampling technique was adopted with an anonymous, linked design for HIV testing using Dried Blood Spot Testing Method (Tri-Dot). A total of 1965 households were interviewed in which 5661 eligible respondents (male:15-54 years and female:15-49 years) completed the interview. …

  8. Enhancing financial literacy, HIV/AIDS skills, and safe social spaces among vulnerable South African youth

    South Africa is disproportionately affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The country has less than one percent of the world's 15-24-year-olds, yet these young people account for approximately 14 percent of all global HIV infections among this age group. Young women are at particular risk among 15-24 year-olds, four times as many females as males are living with HIV (16.9 percent versus 4.4 percent) and girls are becoming infected at much faster rates than boys. …

  9. HIV and emergencies: one size does not fit all

    The dynamics and impact of HIV in humanitarian crises are complex. They depend on the kind of crisis: is it the result of conflict, a rapid-onset natural disaster (such as a flood or cyclone), or a slow-onset emergency caused by drought or environmental degradation? It also depends on the HIV prevalence rate before the crisis, the political situation, the scale and duration of the crisis, the existing infrastructure and services and the level of awareness of HIV. Case studies from five countries facing very different emergencies and HIV prevalence rates were backed by a literature review. …

  10. Sexual behavior and STI/HIV status among adolescents in rural Malawi. An evaluation of the effect of interview mode on reporting

    This study is an article extracted from "Studies in family Planning", special issue on Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health in Sub-Saharan Africa, published in December 2008. The inconsistency between reported sexual behavior and HIV incidence has prompted some epidemiologists to question the conventional explanation for the African AIDS pandemic. This study represents one effort to investigate the reporting of premarital sex in rural southern Malawi. It summarizes the results from an interview-mode experiment conducted with unmarried young women aged 15-21. …

  11. The AIDS epidemic in Sub-Saharan Africa: are teachers a high-risk group?

    This article assesses the extent to which teachers in Sub-Saharan Africa are a ‘high-risk’ group with respect to HIV infection and AIDS-related mortality. The main conclusion that is drawn from this review is that little hard evidence exists to support the contention that teachers are more vulnerable to the epidemic than other occupational groups.

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