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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Assessment of the psychometric properties of HIV knowledge items across five countries

    HIV knowledge is commonly measured in HIV prevention research and program evaluations, but rigorous measurement standards are not always applied. Using item response theory methods, we examined the psychometric functioning of five commonly used HIV knowledge questions in five countries with varying HIV prevalence. We evaluated the internal consistency and measurement invariance of the items. The items performed poorly in all samples and the scale as a whole did not perform equally across samples. …

  2. Sexual behavior among persons living with HIV in Uganda: Implications for policy and practice

    Introduction: HIV epidemics are sustained and propagated by new cases of infection which result from transmission from infected persons to uninfected susceptible individuals. People living with HIV (PLHIV) play a critical role in prevention if they adopt safer sexual behaviors. This study estimated the prevalence of and factors associated with safer sexual behaviors among PLHIV seeking care from civil society organizations (CSOs). …

  3. The intergenerational impact of the African orphans crisis: a cohort study from an HIV/AIDS affected area

    Background: In sub-Saharan Africa, the prevalence of orphanhood among children has been greatly exacerbated by the HIV/AIDS pandemic. If orphanhood harms a child’s development and these effects perpetuate into adult life, then the African orphan crisis could seriously jeopardize the continent’s future generations. Whether or not there exists an adverse, causal and intergenerational effect of HIV/AIDS on development is of crucial importance for setting medical priorities. …

  4. Factors associated with HIV infection among sexually experienced adolescents in Africa: a pooled data analysis

    The article examines the factors associated with HIV status among adolescents aged 15–19 years in 13 African countries. The data were derived from demographic and health surveys or AIDS indicator surveys conducted between 2004 and 2009. The levels of HIV prevalence among adolescents varied considerably across the countries. There was significantly higher HIV prevalence among female adolescents as compared with their male counterparts. For male adolescents, circumcision was the only variable significantly associated with HIV status. …

  5. Dating violence among school students in Tanzania and South Africa: prevalence and socio-demographic variations

    Aims: To identify with whom in-school adolescents preferred to communicate about sexuality, and to study adolescents' communication on HIV/AIDS, abstinence and condoms with parents/guardians, other adult family members, and teachers. Data were obtained from a baseline questionnaire survey carried out in South Africa (Cape Town and Mankweng) and Tanzania (Dar es Salaam) in early 2004. We analysed data for 14,944 adolescents from 80 randomly selected schools. …

  6. Enhancing financial literacy, HIV/AIDS skills, and safe social spaces among vulnerable South African youth

    South Africa is disproportionately affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The country has less than one percent of the world's 15-24-year-olds, yet these young people account for approximately 14 percent of all global HIV infections among this age group. Young women are at particular risk among 15-24 year-olds, four times as many females as males are living with HIV (16.9 percent versus 4.4 percent) and girls are becoming infected at much faster rates than boys. …

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