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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. HIV-related discrimination among grade six students in nine southern African countries

    Background: HIV-related stigmatisation and discrimination by young children towards their peers have important consequences at the individual level and for our response to the epidemic, yet research on this area is limited. Methods: We used nationally representative data to examine discrimination of HIV-positive children by grade six students (n = 39,664) across nine countries in Southern Africa: Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia and Zimbabwe. …

  2. Parent-child communication about sexual and reproductive health in rural Tanzania: Implications for young people's sexual health interventions

    Background: Many programmes on young people and HIV/AIDS prevention have focused on the in-school and channeled sexual and reproductive health messages through schools with limited activities for the young people's families. The assumption has been that parents in African families do not talk about sexual and reproductive health (SRH) with their children. These approach has had limited success because of failure to factor in the young person's family context, and the influence of parents. …

  3. HIV prevention for rural youth in Nigeria: Background overview

    The negative impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic has been a major challenge to sub-Saharan Africa. Although the rate of new HIV infections in sub-continent has decreased, the total number of people living with HIV continues to rise. Most of the people infected with HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa are within the age bracket of 15 to 35 years. It has been estimated that about 80% of the infected group are aged 20-29 years. …

  4. Bridging theory and practice in HIV prevention for rural youth, Nigeria

    Thirty years into combating the spread of HIV through behaviour change interventions experience has grown in the application of multiple approaches from one-for-one counseling and small group workshops, information sessions, and activities to large-scale rallies and mass media campaigns with reducing the spread of HIV. These approaches have been variously guided by best field practice and theoretical frameworks developed to understand health-related behaviours and behaviour change. …

  5. Facilitating HIV testing, care and treatment for orphans and vulnerable children aged five years and younger through community-based early childhood development playcenters in rural Zimbabwe

    Early diagnosis of children living with HIV is a prerequisite for accessing timely paediatric HIV care and treatment services and for optimizing treatment outcomes. Testing of HIV-exposed infants at 6 weeks and later is part of the national prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV programme in Zimbabwe, but many opportunities to test infants and children are being missed. …

  6. A novel economic intervention to reduce HIV risks among school-going AIDS orphans in rural Uganda

    This study tested an economic intervention to reduce HIV risks among AIDS-orphaned adolescents. Adolescents (n = 96) were randomly assigned to receive the intervention or usual care for orphans in Uganda. All adolescents in the study received usual care for AIDS orphans in Uganda, which included peer counseling, health education, and scholastic materials. In addition, experimental adolescents received a family economic intervention, which included a Child/Youth Development Account (CDA) and six 2-hour classes on career planning, career goals, microfinance, and financial well-being. …

  7. Establishing an association between rural youth suicide and same-sex attraction

    Recent research into same-sex attracted youth (SSAY) suicide and rural youth suicide suggests there may be an association between the two. A literature review explores this proposal. While contributing issues to rural SSAY suicide, such as homophobia, isolation, avaibility of information, and acknowledgement of issues are discussed, little hard evidence is found to support the rural and SSAY suicide connection. Further and on-going research is recommended into this under-represented topic.

  8. Who, what, where, when, and why: demographic and ecological factors contributing to hostile school climate for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth

    This study examines how locational (region and local), community-level (school district poverty and adult educational attainment), and school district-level (district size and ratios of students to key school personnel) variables are related to indicators of hostile school climate for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth. Indicators of hostile climate included frequency of homophobic remarks and victimization regarding sexual orientation and gender expression. …

  9. Cambios y permanencias en la sexualidad de jóvenes rurales

    Con una aproximación etnográfica, este estudio buscó indagar las transformaciones en las prácticas y representaciones de la sexualidad en el cortejo que están ocurriendo entre las y los jóvenes de una comunidad agrícola dedicada a la producción de la caña de azúcar. …

  10. Jóvenes rurales: género y generación en un mundo cambiante

    Estudio realizado en la localidad de Iguanillas, en el sur del estado de Puebla. Indaga en los distintos elementos que marcan la especificidad de los hombres jóvenes rurales en tránsito del mundo infantil al mundo adulto. Así, se analiza la influencia de la escuela, el trabajo, la migración, la sexualidad, el matrimonio y la paternidad. Hay elementos, como la escuela o el matrimonio, que pueden ser semejantes para mujeres y hombres y sirven, desde la perspectiva de la generación para marcar la etapa juvenil o su terminación (el matrimonio). …

  11. Families and children affected by HIV/AIDS and other vulnerable children in Papua New Guinea: a national situation analysis

    This study provides an overview of the situation of children and families affected by HIV/AIDS, and of other vulnerable children. Its purpose is to assist the Government, civil society organisations and development partners in the development of policies and programmes for on-going support, and in the monitoring of community-based assistance to families and children affected by HIV/AIDS. The study is a joint project of the Department for Community Development and the National AIDS Council, supported by civil society organisations and UNICEF.

  12. Schools as Centres of Care and Support (SCCS): Responding to the Needs of Orphans and Other Vulnerable Children in Rural Areas

    Southern Africa's rural and impoverished communities are some of the hardest hit by the HIV and AIDS pandemic. Large numbers of vulnerable children in these AIDS-affected communities struggle to access resources and services they desperately need and are entitled to. Despite this, most children still attend school, making schools an obvious avenue through which to address the multiplicity of needs of vulnerable children. The case study presented here describes an innovative and effective programme built on the principles of a multi-sectoral approach to HIV and AIDS. …

  13. Protéger la prochaine génération au Burkina Faso. Nouvelle évidence sur les besoins de santé sexuelle et reproductive des adolescents

    Les jeunes burkinabè se heurtent à des difficultés majeures en termes de santé sexuelle et de reproduction. Dans un contexte où il est difficile d'accéder à des informations et à des soins adaptés, un grand nombre d'entre eux doivent faire face à des grossesses non désirées et à risques ou encore aux infections sexuellement transmissibles (IST) dont le VIH/sida. Si dans leur très grande majorité, les adolescents ont déjà entendu parler du VIH/sida et de la contraception, leur niveau d'information est très bas et peu d'entre eux disposent des aptitudes nécessaires pour se protéger. …

  14. Africa's orphaned generations

    The HIV/AIDS epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa has already orphaned a generation of children - and now seems set to orphan generations more.Today, over 11 million children under the age of 15 living in sub-Saharan Africa have been robbed of one or both parents by HIV/AIDS. Seven years from now, the number is expected tp have grown to 20 million. At that point, anywhere from 15 per cent to over 25 per cent of the children in a dozen sub-Saharan African countries will be orphans - the vast majority of them will have been orphaned by HIV/AIDS. …

  15. Sexualité des adolescents : tendances récentes en milieu rural sénégalais

    This study presents the trend with regard to age at first intercourse of men and women in rural Senegal. The start of the sexual life of men proved to be early for the young generations. The start of sexual life of women, on the contrary, appeared to be somewhat later, in one of the sites. These results confirm that of another study carried out in another rural zone in Senegal. The underlying factors seem to be the early puberty of boys, the contact with the urban culture through education, migration and the changes of norms with regard to sexuality. The rise of the age of marriage of men, combined with an earlier start of sexual life, leads to a longer period wherein the risk of non desired pregnancies exists. It is thus important to implicate boys in the prevention actions with regard to sexual and reproductive health.

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