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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Menstrual hygiene management: operational guidelines

    Adolescence and puberty is a time of intense physical and emotional change for young people between the ages of 10 and 17. Puberty marks a transition between childhood and adulthood that impacts adolescents’ physical, emotional, and social well-being. Evidence shows that during puberty, adolescents embrace and solidify the gender norms of their society. So the way girls and boys see themselves within their family, community and society can be drastically altered for the rest of their lives. …

  2. A time for global action: addressing girls’ menstrual hygiene management needs in schools

    Summary Points: There is an absence of guidance, facilities, and materials for schoolgirls to manage their menstruation in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Formative evidence has raised awareness that poor menstrual hygiene management (MHM) contributes to inequity, increasing exposure to transactional sex to obtain sanitary items, with some evidence of an effect on school indicators and with repercussions for sexual, reproductive, and general health throughout the life course. …

  3. Agua, saneamiento e higiene en la escuela. Fortalece la educacion de las niñas adolescentes en la zona rural de Cochabamba, Bolivia: estudio del manejo de la higiene menstrual en las escuelas

    El inicio de la menstruación presenta múltiples retos para las niñas escolares adolescentes. Muchas de ellas carecen de los conocimientos, apoyo y recursos para manejar la menstruación en la escuela. El propósito del programa Agua, Saneamiento e Higiene en las Escuelasa (WASH en Escuelas) es entender el alcance de los retos en educación y salud a los cuales se enfrentan las niñas adolescentes en el área rural de Cochabamba, Bolivia. Las conclusiones incluirán estrategias para mitigar esos retos y apoyar apropiadamente a las adolescentes en la escuela durante su menstruación. …

  4. Menstrual hygiene management among adolescent schoolgirls in low- and middle-income countries: research priorities

    A lack of adequate guidance on menstrual management; water, disposal, and private changing facilities; and sanitary hygiene materials in low- and middle-income countries leaves schoolgirls with limited options for healthy personal hygiene during monthly menses. …

  5. A comparison of the menstruation and education experiences of girls in Tanzania, Ghana, Cambodia and Ethiopia

    The barriers to menstrual hygiene management faced by adolescent schoolgirls in low-income countries are gaining interest at practice and policy levels. The challenges include inadequate water, sanitation and disposal facilities for the management of menses with privacy and dignity, and insufficient guidance to help girls feel confident in attending school during menses. The studies described here aimed to examine how menarche impacts the lives of schoolgirls in three low-income countries (Ghana, Cambodia and Ethiopia). …

  6. Menstrual hygiene matters: training guide for practitioners

    This training guide includes eight session plans, each with a facilitation guide, four handouts, two PowerPoint presentations and two short films. …

  7. Menstruation management

    Special issue of the gender eye on menstruation management: initiatives and innovations in Uganda for the National Conference on Menstrual Hygiene Management.14th-15th August 2014.

  8. Menstrual hygiene management (Waterlines: Journal issue)

    This issue of the journal Waterlines looks at experiences of menstrual hygiene management in schools in a number of countries.

  9. WASH in schools empowers girls' education in Freetown, Sierra Leone: An assessment of menstrual hygiene management in schools

    From June through July 2012, Emory University and UNICEF collaborated in research aimed to understand the range of challenges faced by girls during menstruation in urban Freetown, as well as the determinants of those challenges. This report presents the methods, findings and key programmatic recommendations to address menstruation-related challenges among girls. More than 100 participants were engaged in eight schools and two communities, including teachers and girls, both in school and out of school.

  10. WASH in schools empowers girls’ education in Masbate Province and Metro Manila, Philippines: An assessment of menstrual hygiene management in schools

    Emory University, UNICEF Philippines, Plan Philippines and Save the Children Philippines carried out a qualitative assessment of menstruation-related challenges girls face in school. Girls, boys, teachers and mothers at 10 schools in Masbate Province and the National Capital Region were interviewed for their opinions. This report highlights the challenges girls face in school during menses, describes the determinants of these challenges, and outlines the educational and health impacts of these challenges as voiced by the participants. …

  11. WASH in schools empowers girls’ education. Proceedings of the Menstrual Hygiene Management in Schools Virtual Conference 2012

    WASH in Schools (WinS) fosters social inclusion and individual self-respect. By offering an alternative to the stigma and marginalization associated with hygiene issues, it empowers all students – and especially encourages girls and female teachers. In recognition of the positive impact on girls’ school attendance and achievement, initiatives around the world are addressing adolescent girls’ menstrual hygiene management (MHM) needs through WinS programming. …

  12. A systematic review of the health and social effects of menstrual hygiene management

    Background: Differing approaches to menstrual hygiene management (MHM) have been associated with a wide range of health and psycho-social outcomes in lower income settings. This paper systematically collates, summarizes and critically appraises the available evidence. Methods: Following the PRISMA guidelines a structured search strategy was used to identify articles investigating the effects of MHM on health and psycho-social outcomes. The search was conducted in May 2012 and had no date limit. Data was extracted and quality of methodology was independently assessed by two researchers. …

  13. The girl with her period is the one to hang her head. Reflections on menstrual management among schoolgirls in rural Kenya

    Background. The onset of menstruation is a landmark event in the life of a young woman. Yet the complications and challenges that can accompany such an event have been understudied, specifically in resource-poor settings. As interventions aim to improve female attendance in schools, it is important to explore how menstruation is perceived and navigated by girls in the school setting. This research conveys rural Kenyan schoolgirls' perceptions and practices related to menstruation. Methods. Data were collected at six rural schools in the Nyanza Province of Western Kenya. …

  14. The effect of a school-based educational intervention on menstrual health: an intervention study among adolescent girls in Bangladesh

    This is the first study to evaluate a menstrual education programme among adolescent school girls in Bangladesh. This study evaluated the menstrual knowledge, beliefs and practices of, and menstrual disorders experienced by, students in grade 6–8 in Bangladesh.

  15. Doing harm in the name of protection: menstruation as a topic for sex education

    Pubertal changes in girls and boys are treated differently in school materials in New Zealand. Girls are taught about menstruation in a scientific manner oriented towards reproduction, hygiene and personal stress. Boys receive more positive information about 'exciting' and 'powerful' bodily changes which they can enjoy. The picture of growing up which girls receive is relatively bleak, and is out of touch with the realities of their own lives and those of adult women around them. …

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