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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Harmonizing the legal environment for adolescent sexual and reproductive health and rights: A review of 23 countries in East and Southern Africa

    The study reviews the laws, policies and related frameworks in 23 countries in East and Southern Africa (ESA) that create either impediments to, or an enabling environment for, adolescent sexual and reproductive health and rights. The assessment resulted in the development of a harmonized regional legal framework, which translates international and regional legal provisions into useful strategies. It gives recommendations based on applicable core legal values and principles gleaned from a range of conventions, charters, political commitments, guidelines and declarations. …

  2. Menstrual health management in East and Southern Africa: a review paper

    This review provides an overview of MHM policies and programmes in the ESA region, with a focus on education, school and community-based sexuality education, WASH, sexual and reproductive health, workplace support and humanitarian programming, as well as opening up the discussion regarding marginalized groups of women and girls such as disabled, prisoners and transgender men.

  3. Rethinking sexual agency: proposing a multicomponent model based on young people’s life stories

    Sexual health policies explicitly aim to encourage young people to take responsibility for their sexuality to prevent adverse outcomes such as unintended pregnancies, STIs and sexual assault. In Europe and North America, ‘choice’ has become a central concept in sexual and reproductive health policy making. However, the concept of choice is not unproblematic, not least because the cultural emphasis on individual responsibility obscures structural limitations and inequalities, and mutual responsibility between partners. …

  4. Comprehensive sexuality education (CSE) in Asia: a regional brief

    This brief aims to provide an overview on the status of the implementation of CSE within Asia, drawing specifically to 11 countries from South, South East and Central Asia. It further analyses the current laws and policies on the status of CSE while presenting the gaps, challenges and barriers on its implementation. Furthermore, the brief also posits recommendations for the improvement of the existing policies, which would enable progressive action by governments, policy-makers, duty-bearers, non-governmental bodies, and other stakeholders. …

  5. The current state of sexuality education in Cyprus, Georgia, Poland, Romania and the Netherlands: insights from a youth perspective

    Aiming to bring attention to the need for Comprehensive Sexuality Education (CSE) and to empower and encourage young leaders to influence their national policies, CHOICE for Youth and Sexuality and YouAct initiated the “Europe for CSE” project, with support from ShareNet. Youth advocates from Cyprus, Georgia, Poland, Romania and the Netherlands joined forces, worked online and met in Amsterdam to set-up concrete advocacy plans at national level, including meetings with volunteers, round tables, online campaigns and reaching out to policy makers and influencers.

  6. The Sexual and reproductive health needs of very young adolescents aged 10–14 in developing countries: what does the evidence show?

    This report draws on analyses of national survey data and literature review results to provide an overview of the evidence on key aspects of sexual and reproductive health among very young adolescents aged 10–14 living in developing regions.

  7. Strengthening comprehensive sexuality education for young people in school settings in Zambia: a review and documentation of the scale-up process

    This report documents progress on implementation of a Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida)-funded UNESCO project that aims to strengthen sexuality education programmes for young people in school settings in Zambia. The project was conceptualized in line with the country’s thematic focus on broader economic and social development and is expected to reach all 9,000 government schools, 1,749,664 learners representing 100% of grades 5 to 12 learners, 40,000 in-service teachers, and 20,000 preservice teachers. …

  8. School-based sexual health education interventions to prevent STI/HIV in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    The authors reviewed evaluations of school-based sexual health education interventions in sub-Saharan Africa to assess effectiveness in reducing sexually transmitted infections and promoting condom use.

  9. Strengthening education in West and Central Africa by improving learners’ sexual and reproductive health

    West and Central Africa (WCA) is the region of the world with the largest percentage of young people and the highest gender disparity in education.

  10. School-based interventions for preventing HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and pregnancy in adolescents (Review)

    Background: School-based sexual and reproductive health programmes are widely accepted as an approach to reducing high-risk sexual behaviour among adolescents. Many studies and systematic reviews have concentrated on measuring effects on knowledge or self-reported behaviour rather than biological outcomes, such as pregnancy or prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Objectives: To evaluate the effects of school-based sexual and reproductive health programmes on sexually transmitted infections (such as HIV, herpes simplex virus, and syphilis), and pregnancy among adolescents.

  11. Policies for sexuality education in the European Union: note

    The note evaluates the state of play of the provision of sexuality education in the context of schooling and in the context of family planning facilities in 24 European Union Member States. The note compares the situation in the Member States and gives an overview of the points of reflection in relation to sexual and reproductive health and rights.

  12. Sexual and reproductive health of young people in Asia and the Pacific: a review of issues, policies and programmes

    The aim of the review was to describe the current status of young people’s SRH and policy and programme responses in the Asia and Pacific regions to support evidence informed policy, programming and advocacy. …

  13. The case for addressing gender and power in sexuality and HIV education: a comprehensive review of evaluation studies

    CONTEXT: Curriculum-based sexuality and HIV education is a mainstay of interventions to prevent STIs, HIV and unintended pregnancy among young people. Evidence links traditional gender norms, unequal power in sexual relationships and intimate partner violence with negative sexual and reproductive health outcomes. However, little attention has been paid to analyzing whether addressing gender and power in sexuality education curricula is associated with better outcomes. …

  14. Good policy and practice in health education. Booklet 9: Puberty education and menstrual hygiene management

    This booklet is the ninth in a series of publications that address key themes of UNESCO’s work in HIV and health education. It is one of several contributions to school-based health promotion that UNESCO has produced to complement our work in HIV and sexuality education. The booklet lays out the context and rationale for education sector involvement, the characteristics of good quality puberty education and menstrual hygiene management, as well as key issues for programme development, implementation and sustainability. …

  15. Education and risky sex in Africa: Unraveling the link between women’s education and reproductive health behaviors in Kenya

    Much research attention has been devoted to understanding the relationship between education and riskier sex-related behaviors and HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa. While in the early 1990s researchers found that increases in education were associated with a higher incidence of HIV/AIDS, this relationship appears to have reversed and better educated people, especially women, appear less likely to engage in riskier sex-related behaviors and have a lower incidence rate of HIV/AIDS. …

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