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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. ‘‘AIDS is rape!’’ Gender and sexuality in children’s responses to HIV and AIDS

    This paper examines young African school children’s understanding of HIV and AIDS. Based on focus group interviews with children aged 7–8 in KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa, it explores the ways in which gender and sexuality feature in their responses to the disease. Data were collected between 2003 and 2004 through 26 focus groups involving 55 boys and 64 girls. The paper argues that younger children are active agents in giving meaning to the disease. …

  2. Analyse qualitative de l'intégration de l'éducation sexuelle des jeunes dans les médias audio-visuels à Kinshasa en République Démocratique du Congo

    L’éducation sexuelle par les médias de masse contribue positivement à la prévention des infections sexuellement transmissibles (IST)/VIH et des grossesses précoces auprès des jeunes. L’objectifs de cette étude sont d’appréhender le niveau d’intégration de l’éducation sexuelle dans les émissions de santé à Kinshasa en République Démocratique du Congo et d’identifier les facteurs facilitant et limitant l’éducation sexuelle des jeunes dans les programmes audio-visuels congolais. …

  3. An innovative approach to using both cellphones and the radio to identify young people’s sexual concerns in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

    Background: As teenagers have easy access to both radio programs and cell phones, the current study used these tools so that young people could anonymously identify questions about sex and other related concerns in the urban environment of the Democratic Republic of Congo. The purpose of this healthcare intervention was to identify and address concerns raised by young people, which are related to sexual health, and which promote youth health. Methods: This healthcare intervention was conducted over a six month period and consisted of a survey carried out in Kinshasa. …

  4. Young people today: Time to Act Now

    This initiative brings together policy makers, young people and civil society to strengthen sexuality education and reproductive and sexual health services in eastern and southern Africa. By having adequate access to these services, young people are empowered to make their own decisions about their health, preventing HIV/AIDS and unexpected pregnancies. …

  5. Teenage pregnancy in South Africa: With a specific focus on school-going learners

    The purpose of the study was to document, review and critically analyse literature on teenage pregnancy with a focus on school-going adolescents. The specific objectives were as follows: To review existing literature and conduct statistical analyses to establish the prevalence and determinants of teenage pregnancy; To assess the individual, familial and educative impact of teenage pregnancy; To identify and assess the impact of interventions for teenage pregnancy; and To propose a conceptual framework for research and interventions to prevent and mitigate the impact of teen pregnancy. …

  6. Ministerial Commitment on comprehensive sexuality education and sexual and reproductive health services for adolescents and young people in Eastern and Southern African (ESA)

    On December 7, 2013, ministers and their representatives from 21 countries in Eastern and Southern Africa came together to endorse and adopt the UN commitment for Eastern and Southern Africa with its recommendations for bold action in response to HIV and the education/health challenges experienced by young people. Recognising the urgency of the situation facing young people, education and health ministers have now committed to addressing young people's realities by ramping up sexuality education and health services in their countries.

  7. Using Drama for School-Based Adolescent Sexuality Education in Zaria, Nigeria

    This paper describes the use of drama and participatory methods in a girls-only secondary school in Zaria, Nigeria, as a means of sexuality education, carried out by the Nigerian Popular Theatre Alliance and the Second Chance Organization of Nigeria. The issues addressed had to come from the students, to allow them to develop critical thinking and learn useful lessons. The topics that concerned the group of 15 girls who participated from the school included abortion, premarital sex and pregnancy, teacher–student relationships and lesbianism. …

  8. Au-delà de la sensibilisation : une série d'outils pour la facilitation de dicussions participatives sur les IST curables et le VIH/SIDA

    Ce guide de facilitation a été préparé par l’Alliance Internationale contre le VIH/SIDA (l’Alliance) à l’attention des facilitateurs de séances participatives en matière de prévention des IST curables et du VIH/SIDA. Il comprend deux séries d’outils : Des exercices de groupe pour démarrer, organiser, animer et évaluer une séance de discussion participative; Des exercices pour initier et faciliter une discussion et un apprentissage participatif concernant les IST curables et le VIH/SIDA.

  9. Relative Risks and the Market for Sex: Teenagers, Sugar Daddies and HIV in Kenya

    An information campaign that provided Kenyan teenagers in randomly selected schools with the information that HIV prevalence was much higher among adult men and their partners than among teenage boys led to a 65% decrease in the incidence of pregnancies by adult partners among teenage girls in the treatment group relative to the comparison. This suggests a large reduction in the incidence of unprotected cross-generational sex. The information campaign did not increase pregnancies among teenage couples. …

  10. Education, HIV, and early fertility: experimental evidence from Kenya

    We provide experimental evidence on the relationships between education, HIV/AIDS education, risky behavior and early fertility in Kenya. We exploit randomly assigned variation in the cost of schooling and in exposure to the national HIV/AIDS prevention curriculum for a cohort of over 19,000 adolescents in Western Kenya, originally aged 13.5 on average. We collected data on the schooling, marriage, and fertility out-comes of these students over 7 years, and tested them for HIV and Herpes (HSV2) after 7 years. …

  11. Gender, sex and HIV: How to adress issues that no-one want to hear about

    This paper discusses the limitations of conventional Information, Education and Communication (IEC) approaches to HIV prevention and describes Stepping Stones, one approach which 1) is more holistic in recognising the location of HIV in a broader sexual and reproductive health (SRH) context; 2) emphasises the importance of a gendered perspective throughout; and 3) works on the basis that, with good facilitation, ordinary community members are those most able to develop the best solutions for their own sexual health needs.

  12. Factors associated with teachers’ implementation of HIV/AIDS education in secondary schools in Cape Town, South Africa

    This study investigated the factors influencing whether high school teachers implemented HIV/AIDS education. The independent variables included constructs derived from expectancy value theories, teachers’ generic dispositions, their training experience, characteristics of their interactive context and the school climate. We conducted a postal survey of 579 teachers responsible for AIDS education in all 193 public high schools in Cape Town. Questionnaires were completed and returned by 324 teachers (56% response rate) from 125 schools. …

  13. Gender and sexual vulnerability of young women in Africa: experiences of young girls in secondary schools in Uganda

    Sexuality is part and parcel of students' experiences of schooling manifested in personal friendships, relations and social interaction. These encounters constitute sites within which sexual identities are developed, practiced and actively produced through processes of negotiation. Drawing on qualitative research conducted in 14 selected secondary schools in Central and Western Uganda, the study illuminates gendered sexual vulnerability within patterns of social interaction and young girls gendered experiences and negotiation of their sexuality. …

  14. Making comprehensive sexuality education available at a national scale: a case study about tailoring international guidance for Kenya

    To help those interested in using sexuality education to improve youth sexual and reproductive health (SRH) outcomes, the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), working with partners, developed the International Technical Guidance on Sexuality Education (ITGSE) in 2009. This two-volume global document offers guidance intended for governments, organizations, programs or individuals to adopt on a voluntary basis and adapt for individual contexts. …

  15. Sexual and reproductive health and rights: implications for comprehensive sex education among young people in Uganda

    This paper presents the findings from an explorative study comparing sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) against local realities for young people in Uganda. This was done by analysing statements by Ugandan adolescents extracted from focus group discussions relating to two SRHRs central in this research: (1) the right of young people to complete and accurate information; and (2) the right to self determination. We found discrepancies between these universally formulated rights and the (political, economic and community) context young Ugandans live in. …

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