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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Gender and Sexuality/HIV Education

    Sex/HIV education curricula have disparate effects for females and males. Review of 59 rigorous sex ed evaluations from the U.S. and developing countries. After omitting single sex programs, programs with no effect, and programs that changed only knowledge, 38 remained (25 U.S. and 13 developing country). A third of these failed to disaggregate results by gender, leaving 25. This article looks at why this is the case and how gender affects SRH outcomes.

  2. Advancing Sexuality Education in Developing Countries: Evidence and Implications

    Educators, researchers, policymakers and parents alike have become increasingly interested in the potential for sexuality education to help meet the needs of young people. The quality and quantity of evaluation research in this field has improved dramatically over the last decade, and there is now clear evidence that sexuality education programs can help young people to delay sexual activity and improve their contraceptive use when they begin to have sex. …

  3. Condom Use Increases Among Namibian Youths Following HIV Training

    Namibian adolescents who received an HIV training curriculum experienced significant changes in attitudes, knowledge, intentions and behaviors concerning sexual activity and HIV. Adolescents who received training were more likely than their peers to know how pregnancy occurs and how to use a condom correctly. They also were more likely to believe that they could be intimate with a partner without having sex and that they could have a girlfriend or boyfriend for a long time without having sex. …

  4. Peer education - outreach, communication and negotiation. Training Module

    Behaviour change communication (which includes peer education and interpersonal communication) have a crucial role to play in STI / HIV control, because access to information, health education, knowledge and skills are essential for STI/HIV control. This training manual describes ways in which NGOs may design, deliver and manage training programmes for peer educators in specific and how to run an effective peer-education component in general. …

  5. Scrutinize campaign: a youth HIV prevention campaign addressing multiple and concurrent partnerships

    Launched on South African television in June 2008, the Scrutinize Campaign was a year-long series of HIV prevention ads targeting multiple and concurrent sexual partnerships. Irreverent and humorous, with strong, colorful visuals, the campaign's ads were markedly different from previous South African HIV prevention campaigns for youth. Rather than telling the audience what to do, the Scrutinize campaign messaging encouraged those in the audience to scrutinize their own behavior, resulting in dramatic uptake of key HIV prevention messages.

  6. Multiple sexual partners and condom use among 10-19 year-olds in four districts in Tanzania: What do we learn?

    This study tested a hypothesis that sexual relationships with multiple partners in the 10- to 19-year age group spurs condom use during sex. The authors performed secondary analysis using data from the adolescent module of the cross-sectional household survey on Maternal, Newborn and Child Health (MNCH) that was done in Kigoma, Kilombero, Rufiji and Ulanga districts, Tanzania in 2008. A total of 612 adolescents from a random sample of 1,200 households participated in this study. Pearson Chi-Square was used as a test of association between multiple sexual partners and condom use. …

  7. Impact de la connaissance du VIH et SIDA sur le comportement sexuel chez les élèves dans deux établissements scolaires de Sikasso

    Cette étude descriptive, transversale, à passage unique a été menée pendant le mois de Décembre 2009 dans le collège Tieba Traoré et le lycée Monseigneur De Monclo de la commune urbaine de Sikasso. Le choix de Sikasso a été motivé par le fait qu'il est le chef lieu de la 3ème région administrative du Mali, frontalière avec le Burkina Faso, la Côte d'Ivoire et la Guinée ; ce qui fait de Sikasso, une ville cosmopolite où toutes les ethnies du pays et d'autres pays de la sous région se côtoient. …

  8. Do teenagers respond to HIV risk information? Evidence from a field experiment in Kenya

    We use a randomized experiment to test whether and what information changes teenagers' sexual behavior in Kenya. Providing information on the relative risk of HIV infection by partner's age led to a 28 percent decrease in teen pregnancy, an objective proxy for the incidence of unprotected sex. Self-reported sexual behavior data suggests substitution away from older (riskier) partners and toward same-age partners. In contrast, the official abstinence-only HIV curriculum had no impact on teen pregnancy. …

  9. Impact of five years of peer-mediated interventions on sexual behavior and sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya

    Background: Since 2000, peer-mediated interventions among female sex workers (FSW) in Mombasa Kenya have promoted behavioural change through improving knowledge, attitudes and awareness of HIV serostatus, and aimed to prevent HIV and other sexually transmitted infection (STI) by facilitating early STI treatment. Impact of these interventions was evaluated among those who attended peer education and at the FSW population level. Methods: A pre-intervention survey in 2000, recruited 503 FSW using snowball sampling. …

  10. A novel economic intervention to reduce HIV risks among school-going AIDS orphans in rural Uganda

    This study tested an economic intervention to reduce HIV risks among AIDS-orphaned adolescents. Adolescents (n = 96) were randomly assigned to receive the intervention or usual care for orphans in Uganda. All adolescents in the study received usual care for AIDS orphans in Uganda, which included peer counseling, health education, and scholastic materials. In addition, experimental adolescents received a family economic intervention, which included a Child/Youth Development Account (CDA) and six 2-hour classes on career planning, career goals, microfinance, and financial well-being. …

  11. Sexual and reproductive health for young HIV positive adolescents: the club concept in support groups

    This manual is for people who work with young adolescents. It provides them with knowledge and materials to create support groups (clubs) for HIV-positive adolescents to arm them with information to make healthy choices.

  12. An action guide for gender equality in national HIV plans: catalyzing change through evidence-based advocacy

    A growing body of evidence links HIV risk with women's social and economic inequality, male norms that drive sexual risk, and the social marginalization of individuals whose sexual identity or behavior is perceived to fall outside accepted norms. In recognition of this, many international donor agencies are funding programs that aim to reduce gender inequality as a driver of the epidemic. HIV service providers are already responding with innovative and often courageous strategies for overcoming gender-based drivers of the epidemic. But more is needed at the national level. …

  13. HIV prevention for South African youth: which interventions work? A systematic review of current evidence

    South Africa's HIV prevalence among 15-24 year olds is one of the highest in the world. This systematic review looks at the evidence for youth HIV prevention in the country since 2000 and critically assesses interventions across four domains: study design and outcomes; intervention design; thematic focus and HIV causal pathways; and intervention delivery. Eight interventions were included in the review, all similar regarding content and objectives, but with variouis thematic foci, causal pathways, theoretical bases, delivery methods, intensity and duration. …

  14. Systematic review of the effectiveness of mass communication programs to change HIV/AIDS-related behaviors in developing countries

    This systematic review analyzes 24 mass media campaigns' effect on HIV knowledge, attitudes and behaviors. The studies were published between 1990 and 2004 about developing countries and compared outcomes by reviewing pre-and post-intervention data; intervention vs. control groups or post-intervention data across levels of exposure. …

  15. Increased sexual abstinence among in-school adolescents as a result of school health education in Soroti district, Uganda

    A health education program conducted in primary schools in Soroti district, Uganda promoted increased access to information, better peer interactions and better quality of the health education system. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among students in their final year of primary school (average age 14 years) at baseline and two years after introduction of the intervention. The percentage of sexually active students decreased from 42.9% (123 out of 287) to 11.1% (31 out of 280) in the intervention arm, while no changes were observed in the control arm. …

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