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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Sexual abuse of school age children: evidence from Kenya

    Student unrest that sometimes culminates in violent expressions have had a long history in Kenyan schools. Recent evidence, however, points to new expressions of abuse on children. There is concern that an ethos of gendered violence often expressed by sexual subjugation of girls by boys is getting institutionalised within Kenyan Schools. The rise in incidents of reported crimes of a sexual nature and the periodic mass sexual violence directed at girls within learning institutions attest to threatened sexual safety in Kenyan schools today. …

  2. Non-consensual sex, school enrolment and education outcomes in South Africa

    Sexual violence is a significant problem in South Africa. Such encounters bring psychological trauma, social stigma, and the risk of pregnancy, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Existing qualitative research indicates that survivors have difficulty concentrating on school-work, with many reportedly losing interest and some leaving school. The relationship between these experiences and school enrolment and educational attainment has not been quantified in sub-Saharan Africa. …

  3. Reality Counts. Focusing on Sexuality and Rights in the Fight against HIV/AIDS

    Reality Counts. Focusing on Sexuality and Rights in the Fight against HIV/AIDS is the third in a series of publications presented by the Swedish Association for Sexuality Education (RFSU) in 2004, in conjunction with the 10th anniversary of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), held in Cairo in 1994. This book consists of a collection of articles about HIV/AIDS around the world. …

  4. Getting research into policy and practice. Experiences from sexual and reproductive health, HIV and AIDS

    Insights is a thematic overview of recent policy-relevant research findings on international development. This issue contents the following articles: Getting research into policy and practice. Experiences from sexual and reproductive health, HIV and AIDS; Investing in the future. …

  5. Enhancing financial literacy, HIV/AIDS skills, and safe social spaces among vulnerable South African youth

    South Africa is disproportionately affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The country has less than one percent of the world's 15-24-year-olds, yet these young people account for approximately 14 percent of all global HIV infections among this age group. Young women are at particular risk among 15-24 year-olds, four times as many females as males are living with HIV (16.9 percent versus 4.4 percent) and girls are becoming infected at much faster rates than boys. …

  6. Addressing the needs of young adolescents

    Worldwide, nearly 10 percent of people are ages 10 to 14, and in developing countries, the percentage is often higher (e.g., Uganda, 16 percent).1 Early adolescence marks a critical time of physical, developmental, and social changes. Interventions during early adolescence may be more effective in shaping healthy attitudes and behaviors than in late adolescence, when attitudes and behaviors are more established. Young adolescents are also more likely to still be in school and less likely to have begun sexual activity.

  7. Keeping the education system healthy: managing the impact of HIV/AIDS on education in South Africa

    HIV/AIDS not only attacks individuals. It also attacks systems. Until recently, HIV/AIDS has been perceived primarily as a health problem, which can be contained by effective health education programmes. But the deadly virus has not been contained and continues to spread so widely that it is now having a profound adverse impact on communities and institutions. Government's health-focused HIV/AIDS plans have failed to consider what must be done when the disease is out of control and state systems are themselves threatened. …

  8. Conspiracy of silence? Stamping out abuse in African Schools

    This article promotes the need to urgently look at the scope of sexual abuse occurring in schools and its significant repercussions. Emphasizes need for standard procedures governing how schools address allegations and treat survivors of this violence. Summarizes research in SSA that looks at role of school culture and society in defining gender identities, the centrality of violence in adolescent sexual relationships and in schools and the contradicting messages of empowerment in schools health curricula against the behaviours with the school itself.

  9. Dangerous game of love? Challenging male machismo

    This paper examines data for 30 Xhosa youth aged 16 to 24 from township schools in South Africa. Major findings focus on the pervasive nature of violence for young people today: beating is the normative response in their homes, at schools and in their relationships. Masculinity is defined by th number of sex partners, choice of main partner and ability to control girlfriends. Feminity is based on girls desirability to the opposite sex. Concludes with suggestions for policy changes, emphasizing the need for government to promote accountability for its behaviour.

  10. Child abuse by teachers in Zimbabwe

    This paper offers needed statistics on the extent of sexual abuse in schools. It analyses 246 reported cases of sexual abuse in schools in Zimbabwe into 3 categories: sexual abuse, physical abuse and emotional abuse. Key findings: 81.6% of sexual abuse was perpetrated by trained teachers and 65.5% of the perpetrators had had sexual abuse with their pupils

  11. Safe haven for girls: can teachers challenge gender violence?

    Introduces a manual developed for South Africa on how to hold 8 interactive workshops with school management to increase awareness and mobilise action towards gender violence in schools. This paper discusses current challenges for government to prioritise the problem including making it part of the national curriculum

  12. The sugar daddy trap: Peer pressure pushes girls into sex

    This paper summarises research findings that male sexual aggression against girls is endemic and institutionalized in Zimbabwe. Specifically, findings suggest that adolescent peer group culture in schools encourage students to conform to stereotypical behaviours that make girls vulnerable to sexual abuse. It concludes with a list of strategies for implementation and at schools within communities.

  13. Risky behaviour: Can education help?

    This paper summarises findings from Malawi regarding transactional sex between young girls and older men and offers a list of possible contributing factors. Possible actions for mitigating focus on highlighting the issue in communities, provisions of alternative education, and increasing lifeskills education (including teacher training)

  14. Criminal justice: tackling sexual abuse in schools

    This paper summarises major findings from a Human Rights Watch report that documents the scope of sexual violence in South African schools. It identifies the lack of accountability among school officials, police and prosecutors which leaves perpetrators unpunished. It encourages governments to create and enforce guidelines for appropriate responses to sexual violence in schools.

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