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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. They are destroying our futures: Sexual violence against girls in Zambia's schools

    This report examines the problem of sexual violence against girls in Zambian schools. In Zambia, many girls are raped, sexually abused, harassed, and assaulted by teachers and male classmates. They are also subjected to sexual harassment and attack while travelling to and from school. Such abuse is a devastating and often overlooked manifestation of the gender-based violence that occurs in numerous settings in Zambia and other countries throughout the world. …

  2. Masculinities and condom use patterns among young rural South Africa men: a cross-sectional baseline survey

    Notions of ideal manhood in South Africa are potentially prescriptive of male sexuality thus accounting for the behaviors which may lead to men being at greater HIV risk. We tested the hypothesis that gender and relationship constructs are associated with condom use among young men living in rural South Africa. 1219 men aged 15–26 years completed a cross-sectional baseline survey from an IsiXhosa questionnaire asking about sexual behaviour and relationships. …

  3. Effective approaches to addressing the intersection of violence against women and HIV/AIDS: Findings from programmes supported by the UN Trust to End Violence Against Women

    In 2005, the UN Trust Fund to End Violence against Women, with support from Johnson & Johnson, opened a special funding window for the 2005-2008 programming period to address the intersection of violence against women and HIV/AIDS. Through this funding window, the UN Trust Fund made grants to a unique cohort of grantees in Asia, Africa, Latin America, and the Caribbean to support programmes aimed at reducing violence against women and its consequent risks for HIV/AIDS as well as to reduce the violence, stigma, and discrimination that women living with HIV/AIDS face. …

  4. Perspectives on intimate partner violence in Swaziland amongst 18–29-year-old men undergoing medical circumcision

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is perceived as a major contributor to HIV transmission in Swaziland. This exploratory study aimed to develop a culturally-specific understanding of men's perspectives of IPV. Focus group methods were used to gather information from 45 young urban Swazi men who had undergone medical male circumcision. A thematic analysis was conducted focussing on the manifestations of IPV and socio-cultural and economic factors which underpin, circumstances which trigger and social responses to IPV. …

  5. Individual and community-level tolerance of spouse abuse and the association with the circumstances of first sex among youth from six sub-Saharan African countries

    Youth who engage in early and premarital sex are at risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infections. Most prevention programs ignore the mediating influence of the threat and experience of violence on these outcomes. Using nationally representative data from Lesotho, Malawi, Zimbabwe, Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda, the autors used multivariate analyses to examine the association between individual- and community-level tolerance of spouse abuse on the age and circumstances of sexual debut among female youth. The youth sample sizes ranged from a high of 5007 in Malawi to a low of 3050 in Lesotho. …

  6. Adolescents' perceptions of sexual coercion in Uganda

    In Uganda, HIV prevalence remains high with young people at higher risk of infection than adults. Much is known about the sexual risk factors for HIV transmission among youths, including sexual encounters that are coerced. On the other hand, relatively little is known about the barriers to preventing sexual coercion and what strategies may overcome those barriers with adolescents. …

  7. Addressing sexual violence and HIV risk among married adolescent girls in rural Nyanza, Kenya

    HIV infection is much higher among adolescent girls in sub-Saharan Africa than among boys. In settings such as Nyanza Province, Kenya, rates of HIV infection are extremely high, and evidence is increasing in some settings that girls who are married are much more likely to be infected with HIV, compared with their unmarried sexually active counterparts. This brief describes a program addressing the problem of sexual violence and the risk of HIV transmission within marriage in Kenya's Nyanza Province. …

  8. Cambodia - addressing HIV vulnerabilities of indirect sex workers during the financial crisis: Situation analysis, strategies and entry points for HIV/AIDS workplace education

    This research paper is the first step towards developing a tailor-made, focused intervention on HIV/AIDS for indirect sex workers in Phnom Penh, using the structure of their formal entertainment sector workplaces. While this research does not provide a framework for interventions at all entertainment venues in Phnom Penh where sex work occurs, it does pinpoint where HIV workplace education is most needed, what sorts of approaches will most likely be effective and where it will have the biggest impact within the context of the recent financial crisis.

  9. Exploratory study of the social contexts, practices and risks of men who sell sex in Southern and Eastern Africa

    The aim of the research presented in this report was to explore the social contexts, life experiences, vulnerabilities and sexual risks experienced by men who sell sex in Southern and Eastern Africa, with a focus on five countries; Kenya, Namibia, South Africa, Uganda and Zimbabwe (an in particular with research activities in the Kenya and Namibia). …

  10. Documenting human rights Violations of sex workers in Kenya: a study conducted in Nairobi, Kisumu, Busia, Nanyuki, Mombasa and Malindi

    This study investigates the human rights violations experienced by women sex workers in Kenya. This research found that these women have no way to claim their individual human rights under the current operating laws and policy framework. They are unable to keep themselves safe as they seek to support themselves and their families because they are relentlessly subject to police harassment, arrest and abuse. Furthermore, because sex work is viewed as an 'immoral activity' rather than as a form of labour, many in society believe that sex workers deserve to be punished for what they do. …

  11. The scourge of abuse amongst school going children in Swaziland

    The scourge of abuse is at the moment a major challenge to the country's schools and communities at large. This study highlights findings on children vulnerable to abuse, those that are exposed to abuse and the circumstances surrounding such situations. Findings of the study revealed that there is indeed a high level of abuse (+ 60%) among school going children in the country, Evidence of this came from responses given by the students, teachers and community members who participated in the study. Sexual abuse was identified as the most prevalent type abuse, closely followed by physical abuse. …

  12. I expect to be abused and I have fear: Sex workers' experiences of human rights violations and barriers to accessing healthcare in four African countries

    This report documents human rights violations experienced by female, male and transgender sex workers in four African countries (Kenya, Uganda, South Africa and Zimbabwe), and describes barriers they face to accessing health services. Through cross-country comparison and documenting sub-regional trends, the study moves beyond previous often-localised descriptions of violations against sex workers in Africa. The study also fills information gaps about violations in male and transgender sex workers in this setting.

  13. Plan d'action triennal opérationnel de lutte contre la féminisation de l'épidémie du sida et les violences basées sur le genre en RDC (2010-2012)

    La situation générale de l'épidémie du VIH/sida en RDC se caractérise par sa tendance à la féminisation, à la juvénilisation et à la ruralisation. Parmi les déterminants qui favorisent sa propagation figurent l'ignorance des précautions à prendre pour éviter de contracter le virus, l'accès limité aux services de prévention, les conditions de vie difficile, la promiscuité, la précocité des rapports sexuels, le multi partenariat sexuel et la mobilité des populations. …

  14. Adolescent sexual and reproductive health in Malawi: a synthesis of research evidence

    The primary goal of this report is to summarize what is known about adolescent sexual and reproductive health in Malawi and to identify knowledge and program gaps requiring further research and program action. …

  15. Sexuality Education in Fifth and Sixth Grades in U.S. Public Schools, 1999

    This study was conducted in 1999 using data from a nationally representative survey of 5th and 6th grader teachers (n=1789) in 5,543 public schools. Analyses were conducted of topics and skills taught relating to sexuality education, grades to which they were taught, teaching approaches, pressures experienced, support received and their needs. Seventy-two percent of the teachers reported that sexuality education is taught in their schools in at least one grade. …

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