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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Comprehensive sexuality education for out of school young people in East and Southern Africa

    The Regional Comprehensive Sexuality Education Resource Package for Out of School Young People was developed to age and developmentally relevant international standards as a comprehensive set of teaching and learning materials for flexible use in settings outside the formal classrooms of the education sector. Several countries of East and Southern Africa have adapted this regional set of materials for nationally endorsed implementation. …

  2. How reliable are reports of early adolescent reproductive and sexual health events in demographic and health surveys?

    CONTEXT: Age at sexual debut, age at first marriage or first union and age at first birth are among the most widely used indicators of health and well-being for female adolescents. However, the accuracy of estimates for these indicators, particularly for younger adolescents, is poorly understood. METHODS: For each of nine countries in Africa and Latin America, Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data from two surveys conducted five years apart were used to examine women’s reports of age at sexual debut, marriage or first union, and first birth. …

  3. Promoting sexual and reproductive health among adolescents in southern and eastern Africa (PREPARE): project design and conceptual framework

    Background: Young people in sub-Saharan Africa are affected by the HIV pandemic to a greater extent than young people elsewhere and effective HIV-preventive intervention programmes are urgently needed. The present article presents the rationale behind an EU-funded research project (PREPARE) examining effects of community-based (school delivered) interventions conducted in four sites in sub-Saharan Africa. One intervention focuses on changing beliefs and cognitions related to sexual practices (Mankweng, Limpopo, South Africa). …

  4. Having sex, becoming somebody: A qualitative study assessing (sexual) identity development of adolescents living with HIV/AIDS

    A growing number of adolescents are living with HIV/AIDS. For their well-being and for prevention, age- and culturally appropriate interventions become increasingly important. This qualitative study was conducted as the first step to develop a sexual and reproductive health (SRH) intervention. The study's objective was to assess the impact of HIV and related contextual conditions on identity formation of adolescents living with HIV/AIDS (ALH) in the domains of physical, cognitive, social, and sexual development. Data were collected using focus group discussions (FGDs). …

  5. Mixed method evaluation of a passive mHealth sexual information texting service in Uganda

    The authors evaluate the impact of a health information intervention implemented through mobile phones, using a clustered randomized control trial augmented by qualitative interviews. The intervention aimed to improve sexual health knowledge and shift individuals towards safer sexual behavior by providing reliable information about sexual health. The novel technology designed by Google and Grameen Technology Center provided automated searches of an advice database on topics requested by users via SMS. It was offered by MTN Uganda at no cost to users.

  6. Young people and sexual agency in rural Uganda

    Drawing on definitions of agency from within the international development literature, the author focuses on decision-making processes leading to young people's involvement in relationships; actions undertaken to maintain secret relationships in contexts where young people's sexual agency is generally prohibited; transactional and gendered negotiations between young people involved within a relationship; and a range of outcomes arising from young people's sexual activity. …

  7. Self-reported sexual behaviour among adolescent girls in Uganda: reliability of data debated

    The objective of this study was to compare self-reported information about sexual behavior in a research interview to information retrieved during a clinical consultation. Social workers interviewed 595 sexually experienced women below 20 years about genital symptoms and sexual behavior. A midwife interviewed and examined the women and took vaginal samples for gonorrhea and chlamydia. Four questions were embedded in both the social workers' interviews and among the midwife's questions. …

  8. Adolescents' perceptions of sexual coercion in Uganda

    In Uganda, HIV prevalence remains high with young people at higher risk of infection than adults. Much is known about the sexual risk factors for HIV transmission among youths, including sexual encounters that are coerced. On the other hand, relatively little is known about the barriers to preventing sexual coercion and what strategies may overcome those barriers with adolescents. …

  9. Sexual, reproductive health needs and rights of young people with perinatally acquired HIV in Uganda

    The number of young people with perinatally acquired HIV is growing significantly. With antiretroviral drugs, children who get infected at birth with HIV have an opportunity to graduate into adolescence and adulthood. This achievement notwithstanding, new challenges have emerged in their care and support needs, the most dynamic being their sexual and reproductive health needs and rights (SRHR). …

  10. Policy and institutional frameworks: mainstreaming adolescent reproductive health (ARH) and gender in HIV/AIDS programs: examples from Ethiopia and Uganda

    This document is divided into six parts (Part I-VI). Part I covers (a) the study background including objectives, methodologies and activities; and (b) an overview of the HIV situation among young people and adolescents in the Africa region. Part II and III present key findings from Ethiopia and Uganda, including a review of policies and the institutional environment in both countries in regards to gender, youth, ARH and HIV/AIDS. Part IV includes key findings of six country assessments of youth issues in the Multi-Sector Programs on HIV/AIDS of the World Bank. …

  11. Delaying sexual debut amongst out-of-school youth in rural southwest Uganda

    This paper focuses on sexual debut among out-of-school youth in Masaka District, Uganda; factors influencing its timing; and assistance young people feel they need to delay sexual initiation. Data were drawn from a needs assessment using applied anthropological techniques with young people ages 13-19 years. Parents, guardians, and community leaders were also consulted. All participants felt that young people begin their sexual lives too early. Young men feel under pressure from friends and older men to prove their masculinity. …

  12. Men are changing. Case study evidence on work with men and boys to promote gender equality and positive masculinities

    Men are changing. Case study evidence on work with men and boys to promote gender equality and positive masculinities is a document that aims to strengthen and broaden the evidence base on working with men and boys. It describes and analyzes 12 programmes from around the world that sought to alter the attitudes and behaviours of men in relation to sexuality, sexual and reproductive health, violence and relationships. …

  13. The contemporary management of growing up and sexual maturation: the role of the primary school in Kenya

    The purpose of this document is to portray an accurate picture of the challenges faced by pre-pubescent young people in Kenya as they enter into adulthood and to reveal the misconceptions and myths about growing up, as well as the negative impact of these myths on the educational needs of marginalized children. This book arises from the work carried out by the Quality Education for Social Transformation (QUEST) programme on basic competencies and information on growing up and sexual maturation (GUSM) in Kenya, Uganda and Zimbabwe in 2000. …

  14. Levels and spread of HIV seroprevalence and associated factors: evidence from national household surveys

    This report summarizes HIV prevalence and the associations between HIV serostatus and key characteristics and behaviors of adult women and men in 22 developing countries, primarily in sub- Saharan Africa. Data come from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and AIDS Indicator Surveys (AIS) conducted between 2001 and 2006. In most of these surveys, nationally representative samples of women age 15-49 and men age 15-59 were tested for HIV. …

  15. Young people, health, HIV, AIDS and development: a case for Uganda

    The paper outlines a background to the current social, health, sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and HIV and AIDS status of young people, and the magnitude and impacts of the AIDS epidemic with specific focus on young people's vulnerability to HIV infection. It provides an overview of Uganda response to HIV and AIDS highlighting policy interventions, strategies, approaches and the contributions of young people in the response. Challenges and emerging issues and opportunities for scaling up the response are briefly explored. …

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