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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Broadening gender: Why masculinities matter. Attitudes, practices and gender-based violence in four districts in Sri Lanka

    In order to bridge the gap in evidence-based studies of masculinities in Sri Lanka, CARE International Sri Lanka undertook, together with Partners for Prevention (P4P), a UNDP, UNFPA, UN Women and UNV regional joint programme for gender-based violence prevention in Asia and the Pacific, a study on men’s knowledge, practices and social attitudes toward gender and gender-based violence. This study brings out key risk factors in relation to violence against women, childhood trauma and men’s own experience of violence. …

  2. Education and risky sex in Africa: Unraveling the link between women’s education and reproductive health behaviors in Kenya

    Much research attention has been devoted to understanding the relationship between education and riskier sex-related behaviors and HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa. While in the early 1990s researchers found that increases in education were associated with a higher incidence of HIV/AIDS, this relationship appears to have reversed and better educated people, especially women, appear less likely to engage in riskier sex-related behaviors and have a lower incidence rate of HIV/AIDS. …

  3. Women hold up half the sky - and half the burden of the HIV epidemic

    The HIV burden on women is dramatically higher in some regions, certain age groups and among marginalized groups, such as female sex workers. Women’s vulnerability to HIV is exacerbated by gender inequality and domestic violence. The global effort towards elimination of paediatric HIV and keeping mothers alive deserves applause. However, the needs of women go beyond their child-bearing age or potentials and/or reproductive desires and must be recognized in the global HIV agenda. In particular, more female-controlled prevention tools are urgently required to allow women to protect themselves.

  4. Are women at the centre? A critical review of the new NSP response to women's sexual and reproductive rights

    One of the recognised challenges of the national AIDS response has been the lack of adequate programmes and interventions aimed at protecting and advancing women’s sexual and reproductive rights and health needs in the context of HIV. The new National Strategic Plan on HIV, STIs and TB, 2012 – 2016 (NSP) was launched on 01 December 2011, making it thus crucial to review the new policy document designed to strategically guide the national response to HIV for the next five years. …

  5. Access to safe abortion: building choices for women living with HIV and AIDS

    In many areas of the world where HIV prevalence is high, rates of unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortion have also been shown to be high. Of all pregnancies worldwide in 2008, 41% were reported as unintended or unplanned, and approximately 50% of these ended in abortion. …

  6. Realizing sexual and reproductive rights: A human rights framework

    In 1994, the world’s governments adopted a landmark Programme of Action on population and development. The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo, Egypt, recognized reproductive rights as human rights and declared that the principles of gender equality, equity and women’s empowerment were crucial to effective population and development strategies. Since then, some important steps have been taken to realize the commitments made. …

  7. Transactional sexual relationships, sexually transmitted infection risk, and condom use among young Black Women in peri-urban areas of the Western Cape Province of South Africa

    This study evaluated the relationship between having a history of transactional sexual relationships with condom use and STI risk. Participants completed a behavioral questionnaire and provided self-collected vaginal swabs which were tested for chlamydia trachomatis, neisseria gonorrhea, and trichomonas vaginalis. Multinomial logistic regression was used to compare condom use rates and STI risk among women with a history of transactional sexual relationships to women with a history of casual sexual relationships and those with no history of casual sexual relationships. …

  8. Paying to prevent HIV infection in young women?

    Between a quarter and a third of young women in sub-Saharan Africa are infected with HIV by the time they reach their early 20s. Structural factors such as poor education, poverty, and gender and power inequalities are important determinants of young women’s vulnerability to HIV infection. In The Lancet, Sarah Baird and colleagues report the results of a randomised controlled trial done with adolescent girls in rural Malawi, examining the effects of a cash transfer programme on risk of HIV infection. …

  9. Incorporating sexual and reproductive health into emergency preparedness and planning: lessons learned from national-level efforts in Haiti, Uganda and South Sudan

    This report reviews recent Women’s Refugee Commission sexual and reproductive health activities (SRH) in Haiti, Uganda and South Sudan. It considers the impact of advocacy, training and planning activities related to emergency preparedness and planning specific to SRH. The report then offers lessons learned and recommendations for improving steps towards SRH emergency preparedness at the national level. …

  10. Youth and unsafe abortion: a global snapshot

    Worldwide, approximately 16 million women and girls ages 15 to 19 give birth each year, accounting for approximately 11 percent of all births worldwide. For these young women, complications from pregnancy and childbirth are the leading cause of death, and unsafe abortion is a major contributor to this mortality. This brief provides an overview of unsafe abortion among young women. …

  11. Assessing knowledge, attitude, and practice of emergency contraception: a cross-sectional study among Ethiopian undergraduate female students

    The importance of Emergency contraception (EC) is evident in preventing unintended pregnancies and its ill consequences like unintended child delivery or unsafe abortion, which are the most common causes of maternal mortality. Knowing that Ethiopia is one of the countries with highest maternal mortality rate, this study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of EC, and to further elucidate the relationship between these factors and some socioeconomic and demographic characteristics among female undergraduate students of Addis Ababa University. …

  12. Human capital consequences of teenage childbearing in South Africa

    Women in South Africa have had fewer children on average since the 1970s, but the rate of teenage childbearing in South Africa has remained the same. Large numbers of young mothers are a cause for social concern in South Africa and other countries because of the adverse impact of teenage childbearing on the education and health of teen mothers and their children. …

  13. Expanding reproductive rights knowledge and advocacy with HIV-positive women and their allies in Namibia: an action-oriented approach. Summary report

    Ipas and the International Community of Women Living with HIV (ICW) collaborated on a project to enhance the capacity of ICW members in Namibia to work on issues of gender, violence, HIV/AIDS and reproductive rights with members of their communities. This summary report discusses a follow-up initiative to a 2007 training-of-trainers course held in Namibia and offers concluding observations of successes and challenges of the initiative.

  14. Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2010 Summary Report, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

    This report presents the findings of the 2010 survey, the fourth round of the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, carried out in Mongolia by the National Statistical Office. The survey aims to collect and analyze data for monitoring the situation of children and women through a range of areas including health, education, development andprotection, implementation of rights of children and women in Mongolia, and knowledge of females and males and their sexual behavior in relation to HIV, AIDS. …

  15. Improving the HIV response for women in Latin America: barriers to integrated advocacy for sexual and reproductive health and rights

    Civil society plays an important health governance role by influencing international sexual, reproductive health and HIV agendas as expressed in international conferences; monitoring and evaluating implementation; and holding governments accountable for their commitments. Integration of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and HIV services to achieve the health-related MDGs would seem to be a strategic joint advocacy agenda for the women's sexual and reproductive health movement and HIV activists, particularly women living with HIV. …

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