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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. HIV prevention in Southern Africa for young people with a focus on young women and girls in Botswana

    This review focuses on the major factors that drive HIV infection and explores interventions that have demonstrated effectiveness, as well as illustrating important learnings for programme development. Findings inform understanding of sex and sexuality in relation to HIV risk and the potentials for interventions in the Botswana context.

  2. Preventing sexual violence and HIV in children

    BACKGROUND: Evidence linking violence against women and HIV has grown, including on the cycle of violence and the links between violence against children and women. To create an effective response to the HIV epidemic, it is key to prevent sexual violence against children and intimate partner violence (IPV) against adolescent girls. …

  3. Silenced and forgotten: HIV and AIDS agenda setting paper for women living with HIV, sex workers and LGBT individuals in southern African and Indian Ocean states

    The impact of the HIV and AIDS epidemic is felt hardest by the individuals who are infected or affected by the disease, and in particular by individuals who are especially vulnerable to HIV infection due to stigma and discrimination, poverty, a lack of access to education, health and other services that promote HIV awareness. However, the impact of HIV and AIDS goes beyond the individual or household level – it affects nations as a whole. …

  4. If I buy the Kellogg’s then he should [buy] the milk: young women’s perspectives on relationship dynamics, gender power and HIV risk in Johannesburg, South Africa

    Ideals of masculinity and femininity may limit South African women's decision making power in relationships and increase their risk of HIV infection. The authors conducted 30 in-depth interviews with 18-24-year-old women in inner-city Johannesburg with the aim of understanding young women's expectations of intimate relationships with men, their perceptions of gender and power and how this influences HIV risk. …

  5. Education and risky sex in Africa: Unraveling the link between women’s education and reproductive health behaviors in Kenya

    Much research attention has been devoted to understanding the relationship between education and riskier sex-related behaviors and HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa. While in the early 1990s researchers found that increases in education were associated with a higher incidence of HIV/AIDS, this relationship appears to have reversed and better educated people, especially women, appear less likely to engage in riskier sex-related behaviors and have a lower incidence rate of HIV/AIDS. …

  6. Economic status, education and risky sexual behavior for urban Botswana women

    This study investigated the relationship between economic status, education and risky sexual behavior for urban Botswana women. The data used are a nationally representative sample from the Botswana AIDS Impact Survey conducted in 2004. An un-weighted sample of 2215 women aged 15-49, who have had sexual intercourse was considered for analysis. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses are used to gain insights into the potential linkages between economic status, education and risky sexual behavior. …

  7. Impact of HIV/AIDS education programmes on sexual behaviour of female students in Nigerian schools: Policy implications for scientific and technolgical development

    This study investigated the impact of HIV/AIDS education programmes on sexual behaviors of female students in senior secondary schools in Rivers State of Nigeria. The population for the study comprised of all senior secondary schools female students in Nigeria, which was divided into urban and rural schools. The sample size was 200 female students obtained by using stratified random sampling technique. …

  8. I did it for him, not for me: an exploratory study of factors influencing sexual debut among female university students in Durban, South Africa

    The authors used qualitative interviews to explore influences on first sexual intercourse among 10 young women who had sexual debut within a year of enrolling in the university. University culture of sexual permissiveness and pressure from sexually experienced friends and male partners were the main factors influencing sexual debut. Ambivalence and a range of coercive behaviors characterized first sex. Participants were unprepared for sex and lacked power in deciding the timing and circumstances of first sex, which resulted in physical and emotional pain and regret. …

  9. Individual and community-level tolerance of spouse abuse and the association with the circumstances of first sex among youth from six sub-Saharan African countries

    Youth who engage in early and premarital sex are at risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infections. Most prevention programs ignore the mediating influence of the threat and experience of violence on these outcomes. Using nationally representative data from Lesotho, Malawi, Zimbabwe, Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda, the autors used multivariate analyses to examine the association between individual- and community-level tolerance of spouse abuse on the age and circumstances of sexual debut among female youth. The youth sample sizes ranged from a high of 5007 in Malawi to a low of 3050 in Lesotho. …

  10. Targeting HIV interventions for adolescent girls and young women in Southern Africa: use of the PLACE methodology in Hwange district, Zimbabwe

    This paper addresses the issue of how to target interventions to girls 15+19 and young women 20-24 in a resource poor setting of Hwange District, Zimbabwe. The Priorities for Local AIDS Control efforts methodology was used to understand where these young people socialize and also to understand whether age disparate relationships were a common occurrence. Findings indicated prevention efforts for those 15-19 would need to focus on 'everyday' sites as these are the places where the majority of girls socialized. …

  11. Reducing HIV Infection in Young Women in Southern Africa: The Key to Altering Epidemic Trajectories in a Generalized, Hyperendemic Setting

    This paper gives an overview of the HIV prevention battle in Southern Africa and supports the development of more balanced and innovative HIV prevention portfolio that adresses the real, immediate, and substantial risk facing young women from sub-Saharan African countries.

  12. Sexual risk among orphaned adolescents: is country-level HIV prevalence an important factor?

    Previous studies from sub-Saharan Africa have found that orphans experience increased sexual risk compared to non-orphans. This article developed a theoretical framework for the investigation of determinants of HIV risk and used it to generate specific hypotheses regarding the effect of country-level HIV prevalence on the sexual risk experience of orphans. It expected that countries with high HIV prevalence would experience a higher prevalence of orphanhood. …

  13. Sexual and Reproductive Health Needs of Women and Adolescent Girls living with HIV. Research Report on Qualitative Findings from Brazil, Ethiopia and the Ukraine

    Sexual and Reproductive Health Needs of Women and Adolescent Girls living with HIV. Research Report on Qualitative Findings from Brazil, Ethiopia and the Ukraine is a document developed by EngenderHealth with the support of UNFPA. This research identified some interesting trends across the three countries and some issues unique to each setting that need to be considered in strategic planning efforts to improve HIV-positive women's and adolescent girl's access and utilization of sexual and reproductive health services. …

  14. The short-term impacts of a schooling conditional cash transfer program on the sexual behaviour of young women

    Recent evidence suggests that conditional cash transfer programs for schooling are effective in raising school enrollment and attendance. However, there is also reason to believe that such programs can affect other outcomes, such as the sexual behavior of their young beneficiaries. Zomba Cash Transfer Program is a randomized, ongoing conditional cash transfer intervention targeting young women in Malawi that provides incentives (in the form of school fees and cash transfers) to current schoolgirls and recent dropouts to stay in or return to school. …

  15. Women of the world: laws and policies affecting their reproductive lives Francophone Africa

    The publication provides a detailed review of national laws and policies affecting women in seven francophone African countries. One part of the country review focuses on the rights of special group: female minors and adolescents.

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