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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Research into the needs of young people in Northern Ireland who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual and/or transgender (LGBT)

    This research has been commissioned by the Department of Education as part of their statutory duty to promote equality of opportunity under Section 75 of the Northern Ireland Act (1998). Analysis of the Census 2001 indicates that between 2 and 10% of the population may be lesbian, gay or bisexual. This would indicated that there are between 12,190 and 60,953 LGB people under 25 years in Northern Ireland. …

  2. Gender Dynamics and Sexual Norms among Youth in Mali in the Context of HIV/AIDS Prevention

    Socially constructed ideas of gender norms and values attached to sexuality need to be considered when aiming to build the young people’s capacity to adopt HIV preventive behaviours. We conducted ten focus groups and sixteen individual interviews to explore sexual norms among youth in Bamako. Premarital sex, multiple partnering, condom use and transactional sex were discussed. The findings suggest that young people’s sexual norms are shaped by kin or authoritative elders as well as by external influences coming from Western culture. …

  3. If I buy the Kellogg’s then he should [buy] the milk: young women’s perspectives on relationship dynamics, gender power and HIV risk in Johannesburg, South Africa

    Ideals of masculinity and femininity may limit South African women's decision making power in relationships and increase their risk of HIV infection. The authors conducted 30 in-depth interviews with 18-24-year-old women in inner-city Johannesburg with the aim of understanding young women's expectations of intimate relationships with men, their perceptions of gender and power and how this influences HIV risk. …

  4. Lesbian, gay and bisexual citizenship: a case study as represented in a sample of South African life orientation textbooks

    Over the past two decades, sexual citizenship has emerged as a new form of citizenship coupled with increased interest in the challenges to citizenship and social justice faced by lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI) people and, in particular, by sexual minority youth within education systems. In South Africa, the rights of LGBTI people have been institutionalized by legislation, and research has begun to consider how educators may facilitate a more inclusive school environment for LGBTI youth. …

  5. Cross-Generational Relationships: Perceived Norms and Practices in Jamaica

    This report from C-Change/FHI 360 documents a study that explored the dynamics of cross-generational relationships in Jamaica, with the aim of informing communication programs working to decrease cross-generational sexual practices and their related risks, including gender-based violence (GBV) and HIV. This study defined cross-generational sex as sexual behavior between two people who are at least 10 years different in age. The authors found that key motivators for participating in these relationships were sexual gratification and emotional and financial support. …

  6. Sexual risk behaviors among youth heads of household in Gikongoro, south province of Rwanda

    The purpose of this study was to: (a) identify risk behaviors that expose Rwandan young heads of household (YHH) to HIV infection, (b) determine gender-specific high-risk profiles and, (c) determine predictors of sexual onset. A household survey was conducted among 692 YHH, ages 12–24, all beneficiaries of a World Vision basic needs program in Gikongoro, Rwanda, from January to March 2004. Participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Data were collected on socio-demographic variables, knowledge about HIV/AIDS prevention and sexual risk behaviors. …

  7. Stay healthy: a gender-transformative HIV prevention curriculum for youth in Namibia

    The overall goal of Stay Healthy: A Gender-Transformative HIV Prevention Curriculum for Youth in Namibia is to prevent HIV infection among Namibian youth aged 13-18. Stay Healthy focuses on changing three key behaviors directly related to HIV infection by accomplishing the following: (1) delaying the onset of sexual intercourse, (2) increasing the correct and consistent use of the male condom among sexually active youth, and (3) decreasing multiple concurrent partners among sexually active youth. …

  8. The short-term impacts of a schooling conditional cash transfer program on the sexual behaviour of young women

    Recent evidence suggests that conditional cash transfer programs for schooling are effective in raising school enrollment and attendance. However, there is also reason to believe that such programs can affect other outcomes, such as the sexual behavior of their young beneficiaries. Zomba Cash Transfer Program is a randomized, ongoing conditional cash transfer intervention targeting young women in Malawi that provides incentives (in the form of school fees and cash transfers) to current schoolgirls and recent dropouts to stay in or return to school. …

  9. The voices of young Zimbabweans. Gender and sexual identities and HIV/AIDS in education

    The Government of Zimbabwe has prioritised the need for better adolescent reproductive health (ARH) to combat HIV/AIDS transmission, reduce teenage pregnancies and the proportion of school dropouts, and ensure equality of health provision to the country's youth. In view of the paucity of information on the identities of adolescents as they construct and experience them themselves, UNICEF ESARO in 2001 commissioned this study on young people in Zimbabwe. …

  10. Gender differentials in adolescent sexual activity and reproductive health risks in Cameroon

    This paper documents how young men and women in Cameroon vary in the way they conduct their sexual lives as well as in the reproductive health risks they take. Consideration is given to gender differentials in patterns of sexual initiation, number of regular and casual partners, and condom use. It also examines factors affecting male and female patterns of sexual and reproductive health behaviour. It evaluates and contrasts the health consequences of the sexual activity of both males and females, including the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections.

  11. Gendering prevention practices: a practical guide to working with gender in sexual safety and HIV and AIDS awareness education

    This manual is based on an action research project that explored gender relations in HIV and AIDS education in Estonia. It contains practical resources for educators or trainers seeking to take a gendered approach to HIV and AIDS awareness raising activities with young people. The manual aims at providing some concrete suggestions for activities that can allow and encourage people to enter the debates about gender issues, examine gender systems in their own society and connect the gender issues they identify to key challenges of sexual transmission of HIV and AIDS. …

  12. Socioeconomic disadvantage and unsafe sexual behaviors among young women and men in South Africa

    Recent evidence suggests that the burden of new HIV infections in developing countries is concentrated among young people and females. Even with knowledge of how to protect oneself from infection, such information may not always be usable in daily situations of economic and social disadvantage that characterize the lives of many young people and women in poor countries. …

  13. Gender and the HIV epidemic: adolescent sexuality, gender and the HIV epidemic

    This document highlights factors which increase the risk of HIV infection for young people and concludes with a number of principles for success for future work to prevent HIV infection among young people in developing countries.

  14. Gender and HIV/AIDS: supporting resources collection

    This document contains: Summaries of key resources outlining why gender is so important in understanding the impact and spread of HIV/AIDS; Practical examples of approaches from around the world, aiming to strengthen capacity building, advocacy, service delivery, and research; Short summaries of operational toolkits and guides; Information about courses, web sites, networking and contact details for organisations from around the world specialising in gender and HIV/AIDS.

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