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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Short-term effects of a rights-based sexuality education curriculum for high-school students: a cluster-randomized trial

    An emerging model for sexuality education is the rights-based approach, which unifies discussions of sexuality, gender norms, and sexual rights to promote the healthy sexual development of adolescents. A rigorous evaluation of a rights-based intervention for a broad population of adolescents in the U.S. has not previously been published. This paper evaluates the immediate effects of the Sexuality Education Initiative (SEI) on hypothesized psychosocial determinants of sexual behavior.

  2. HIV prevention in Mexican schools: prospective randomised evaluation of intervention

    Objective: To assess effects on condom use and other sexual behaviour of an HIV prevention programme at school that promotes the use of condoms with and without emergency contraception. […] Intervention: Schools were randomised to one of three arms: an HIV prevention course that promoted condom use, the same course with emergency contraception as back-up, or the existing sex education course. Self administered anonymous questionnaires were completed at baseline, four months, and 16 months. …

  3. How reliable are reports of early adolescent reproductive and sexual health events in demographic and health surveys?

    CONTEXT: Age at sexual debut, age at first marriage or first union and age at first birth are among the most widely used indicators of health and well-being for female adolescents. However, the accuracy of estimates for these indicators, particularly for younger adolescents, is poorly understood. METHODS: For each of nine countries in Africa and Latin America, Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data from two surveys conducted five years apart were used to examine women’s reports of age at sexual debut, marriage or first union, and first birth. …

  4. Discussing sexual orientation and gender in classrooms: a testimonial-based approach to fighting homophobia in schools

    To fight homophobia in schools in Québec, many teachers rely on community organizations such as the Groupe de Recherche et d’Intervention Sociale (Research and Social Intervention Group) to address sexual diversity in class. This article documents major outcomes of these workshops as seen by students. Students identified topics related to sexuality and gender inversion as controversial, especially when involving men. The authors present how GRIS leaders decided to adapt intervention practices following such findings.

  5. The influence of early sexual debut and sexual violence on adolescent pregnancy: a matched case-control study in Jamaica

    CONTEXT: Contraceptive knowledge and use at first sex have increased over time among Jamaican adolescents, yet high unintended pregnancy rates persist. More information on risk factors for adolescent pregnancy is needed to inform programs. METHODS: Structured interviews were conducted with 15–17-year-old females—250 who were currently pregnant and 500 sexually experienced, but never-pregnant, neighborhood-matched controls. …

  6. Sexual politics and sexual rights in Brazil: An overview

    The objective of this text is to survey the political construction of sexual rights in Brazil working on themes that are especially relevant to the configuration of these rights (reproduction/abortion, STDs/AIDS and sexual diversity), and mapping the main actors, the legal instruments now in place or still being discussed and, lastly, the public policies that have been adopted in the last two decades. …

  7. Sex education in the eyes of Brazilian public school teachers

    This article presents the results of a research about the implementation of sex education in the public schools of Novo Hamburgo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used and semi-structured interviews were conducted with 124 teachers from 56 public schools. The Discourse of the Collective Subject method was applied to analyse the interviews. The results show that sex education is not a crosscutting theme in schools, and that it is mostly dominated by the biomedical discourse. …

  8. Prevalence of pattern of risky behaviors for reproductive and sexual health among middle- and high-school students

    This research aimed to establish the prevalence and factors associated with the pattern of risky behavior for reproductive and sexual health (PRBRSH) among secondary education students in Santa Marta, Colombia. A cross-sectional study was done. The PRBRSH was defined as having had two or more out of four possible risky sexual practices across the lifetime. Logistic regression was calculated to control for confounding variables. In total, 804 students reported lifetime sexual intercourse. PRBRSH was reported by 36.1% of the sample. …

  9. Circle of life HIV/AIDS prevention for American Indian and Alaska native youth

    This article describes the objectives, theoretical bases, development process, and evaluation efforts to-date for the Circle of Life (COL) curricula, HIV/AIDS prevention interventions designed for American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth. The curricula are based on Indigenous models of learning and behavior encompassing concepts of Western theories of health behavior change. The curricula underwent extensive national and community review. Subsequent advances include the development of a computer-based version of the intervention.

  10. The association between sex education and youth’s engagement in sexual intercourse, age at first intercourse, and birth control use at first sex

    Purpose: Sex education is intended to provide youth with the information and skills needed to make healthy and informed decisions about sex. This study examined whether exposure to formal sex education is associated with three sexual behaviors: ever had sexual intercourse, age at first episode of sexual intercourse, and use of birth control at first intercourse. Methods: Data used were from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth, a nationally representativesurvey. The sample included 2019 never-married males and females aged 15–19 years. …

  11. Intersexuality and sexual rights in southern Brazil

    This paper reports of the socio‐medical management of intersexuality in a teaching hospital in southern Brazil. Findings reveal that the ‘search for sex’ in the body treats sex as a medical‐diagnostic category constructed during decision‐making negotiations. In the course of the various bodily ‘regulations’ and ‘corrections’ imposed, the insufficiency of a model in which categories are based around a sexual dichotomy is revealed. …

  12. Risky groups, risky behaviour, and risky persons: Dominating discourses on youth sexual health

    Significant public health attention has been focused on the problems of youth sexual behaviour. Empirical public health research in this area has attempted to account for mostly negative sexual health outcomes (e.g. sexually transmitted infections and teenage pregnancies) by examining individual characteristics and risk-taking behaviour. Public health practice has followed suit, focusing primarily on modifying sexual risk behaviour and lifestyle ‘choices’. …

  13. Build a curriculum that includes everyone

    In order to accommodate the education needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender students American schools need to do more than add LGBT information to the curriculum in sex education class. …

  14. Targeting HIV prevention messaging to a new generation of gay, bisexual, and other young men who have sex with men

    HIV prevention messaging has been shown to reduce or delay high-risk sexual behaviors in young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Since the onset of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, a new generation of YMSM has come of age during an evolution in communication modalities. Because both these communication technologies and this new generation remain understudied, the authors investigated the manner in which YMSM interact with HIV prevention messaging. …

  15. Empowering lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth: lessons learned from a Safe Schools Summit

    The bullying of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth in schools is a significant problem in the United States. This study examined responses of youth participants at a statewide Safe Schools Summit to a survey of their experiences with school-based violence, harassment, and discrimination, and of the effects of their attendance at the Summit. Quantitative analyses found that 92% of respondents felt "more empowered" following participation in the Summit. …

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