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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Diversity in school

    Diversity in School offers training on gender, sexuality, and ethnic (race) relations for teaching professionals. The resource, originally delivered in Brazil, was the result of a partnership between the Brazilian Government’s Special Secretariat for Policies on Women, the Special Secretariat for the Promotion of Policies on Racial Equality (SEPPIR/PR), the Brazilian Ministry of Education, the British Council and the Latin American Centre on Sexuality and Human Rights. Diversity in School was successfully piloted in six cities in Brazil in 2006, involving 1,200 teachers. …

  2. Cross-generational and transactional sexual relations in Uganda: Income poverty as a risk factor for adolescents

    The phenomenon of cross-generational sex – defined as sexual relationships between an adolescent girl and a partner who is older, usually by 10 or more years – can be linked to many life-long consequences. …

  3. Guidelines for supporting sexual and gender diversity in schools. Sexuality discrimination and homophobic bullying

    It is a fundamental right of every child and young person to feel safe in their school environment. Western Australian schools pride themselves on being safe and effective learning environments that cater for the diverse needs of all students, including those who are (LGBTI) lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex and other sexuality, sex and gender diverse people. Recognising LGBTI students and staff as an everyday part of the social mix of the school community is important in responding appropriately to their needs. …

  4. Addressing the intergenerational transmission of gender-based violence: Focus on educational settings

    Gender-based violence (GBV) is increasingly recognized as a hindrance to economic and social development, in addition to violating the human rights of those experiencing it. Therefore, preventing the perpetration of GBV has ramifications beyond simply ending violence. Gender-based violence is violence perpetrated based on a person’s gender, and reflective of gender inequalities. Patriarchal social norms exist to varying degrees in almost every part of the world, often placing men and boys in dominant positions over women and girls. …

  5. Preventing sexual violence and HIV in children

    BACKGROUND: Evidence linking violence against women and HIV has grown, including on the cycle of violence and the links between violence against children and women. To create an effective response to the HIV epidemic, it is key to prevent sexual violence against children and intimate partner violence (IPV) against adolescent girls. …

  6. Compendium of gender equality and HIV indicators

    The intended purpose of this compendium is to provide program managers, organizations, and policy makers with a menu of indicators to better “know their HIV epidemic/know their response” from a gender perspective in order to: strengthen national and subnational stakeholders’ understanding of their HIV epidemic and response from a gender equality perspective; monitor progress towards eliminating gender-based inequities in HIV responses, and monitor and evaluate programs that address specific types of gender equality interventions in the context of HIV.

  7. Research into the needs of young people in Northern Ireland who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual and/or transgender (LGBT)

    This research has been commissioned by the Department of Education as part of their statutory duty to promote equality of opportunity under Section 75 of the Northern Ireland Act (1998). Analysis of the Census 2001 indicates that between 2 and 10% of the population may be lesbian, gay or bisexual. This would indicated that there are between 12,190 and 60,953 LGB people under 25 years in Northern Ireland. …

  8. Gender Dynamics and Sexual Norms among Youth in Mali in the Context of HIV/AIDS Prevention

    Socially constructed ideas of gender norms and values attached to sexuality need to be considered when aiming to build the young people’s capacity to adopt HIV preventive behaviours. We conducted ten focus groups and sixteen individual interviews to explore sexual norms among youth in Bamako. Premarital sex, multiple partnering, condom use and transactional sex were discussed. The findings suggest that young people’s sexual norms are shaped by kin or authoritative elders as well as by external influences coming from Western culture. …

  9. Gender and sexual vulnerability of young women in Africa: experiences of young girls in secondary schools in Uganda

    Sexuality is part and parcel of students' experiences of schooling manifested in personal friendships, relations and social interaction. These encounters constitute sites within which sexual identities are developed, practiced and actively produced through processes of negotiation. Drawing on qualitative research conducted in 14 selected secondary schools in Central and Western Uganda, the study illuminates gendered sexual vulnerability within patterns of social interaction and young girls gendered experiences and negotiation of their sexuality. …

  10. If I buy the Kellogg’s then he should [buy] the milk: young women’s perspectives on relationship dynamics, gender power and HIV risk in Johannesburg, South Africa

    Ideals of masculinity and femininity may limit South African women's decision making power in relationships and increase their risk of HIV infection. The authors conducted 30 in-depth interviews with 18-24-year-old women in inner-city Johannesburg with the aim of understanding young women's expectations of intimate relationships with men, their perceptions of gender and power and how this influences HIV risk. …

  11. Engaging boys and men in gender transformation: The group education manual

    This 11-chapter manual offers trainers an array of participatory experiential exercises to reach men (and their partners), exploring gender socialization and its impact on HIV prevention and care. Piloted in Ethiopia, Namibia, South Africa and Tanzania, the manual is designed to assist master trainers in developing curricula to work with men and boys on gender, HIV and AIDS issues. …

  12. Education and risky sex in Africa: Unraveling the link between women’s education and reproductive health behaviors in Kenya

    Much research attention has been devoted to understanding the relationship between education and riskier sex-related behaviors and HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa. While in the early 1990s researchers found that increases in education were associated with a higher incidence of HIV/AIDS, this relationship appears to have reversed and better educated people, especially women, appear less likely to engage in riskier sex-related behaviors and have a lower incidence rate of HIV/AIDS. …

  13. Economic status, education and risky sexual behavior for urban Botswana women

    This study investigated the relationship between economic status, education and risky sexual behavior for urban Botswana women. The data used are a nationally representative sample from the Botswana AIDS Impact Survey conducted in 2004. An un-weighted sample of 2215 women aged 15-49, who have had sexual intercourse was considered for analysis. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses are used to gain insights into the potential linkages between economic status, education and risky sexual behavior. …

  14. Lesbian, gay and bisexual citizenship: a case study as represented in a sample of South African life orientation textbooks

    Over the past two decades, sexual citizenship has emerged as a new form of citizenship coupled with increased interest in the challenges to citizenship and social justice faced by lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI) people and, in particular, by sexual minority youth within education systems. In South Africa, the rights of LGBTI people have been institutionalized by legislation, and research has begun to consider how educators may facilitate a more inclusive school environment for LGBTI youth. …

  15. (B)order(s). AIDS Review 2011

    This Review reflects on the borders that have been placed around sexual identity, sexual behaviour and sexuality. It also reflects on the need for sexual order in the dominant hetronormative discourse of most societies, where heterosexuality is deemed to be the norm and all other sexual identities and practices the exception to this rule, to be tolerated, albeit in a strained and tense way. …

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