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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Let's talk early and unintended pregnancy!

    This booklet is aimed at helping adolescents better understand important issues in their life related to early and unintended pregnancy (EUP) – including puberty, contraception, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and relationships. The booklet starts by exploring the journey from childhood to adulthood. In this section, the changes that happen in males and females during puberty are described. Next, pregnancy in general is explained. Following this, EUP specifically is detailed, including causes, consequences, and prevention. …

  2. Education, HIV, and early fertility: experimental evidence from Kenya

    A seven-year randomized evaluation suggests education subsidies reduce adolescent girls’ dropout, pregnancy, and marriage but not sexually transmitted infection (STI). The government’s HIV curriculum, which stresses abstinence until marriage, does not reduce pregnancy or STI. Both programs combined reduce STI more, but cut dropout and pregnancy less, than education subsidies alone. …

  3. Cash transfers: magic bullet or fundamental ingredient?

    Comment on a study published in The Lancet Global Health by Audrey Pettifor and colleagues on cash transfers, school attendance and the reduction of HIV risk behaviours in adolescent girls.

  4. The effect of a conditional cash transfer on HIV incidence in young women in rural South Africa (HPTN 068): a phase 3, randomised controlled trial

    Cash transfers have been proposed as an intervention to reduce HIV-infection risk for young women in sub-Saharan Africa. However, scarce evidence is available about their effect on reducing HIV acquisition. The authors aimed to assess the effect of a conditional cash transfer on HIV incidence among young women in rural South Africa. Based on their research findings, the authors draw the conclusion that cash transfers conditional on school attendance did not reduce HIV incidence in young women. School attendance significantly reduced risk of HIV acquisition, irrespective of study group. …

  5. Manual para la atención de la Salud Sexual y Reproductiva de mujeres que viven con VIH y VIH avanzado (sida). Manual práctico para proveedores de servicios de salud por niveles de atención del Ministerio De Salud Pública y Asistencia Social de Guatemala

    Este Manual surge como parte de la respuesta ante las demandas de la Red Guatemalteca Mujeres Positivas en Acción, referente para Guatemala de la Comunidad Internacional de Mujeres que viven con VIH/SIDA (ICW), instancia que ha documentado la falta de cumplimiento del marco legal y de derecho en la atención de la salud sexual y reproductiva de mujeres que viven con VIH. Este proceso contó con el acompañamiento técnico y financiero del Fondo de Población de las Naciones Unidas. …

  6. Projet de prévention du VIH/SIDA chez les femmes et les filles dans les zones urbaines et rurales en République du Congo : Rapport d'évaluation finale

    En dépit des efforts du Gouvernement et des organisations de la société civile, notamment des associations féminines, le risque d’infection au VIH en République du Congo reste élevé. L’enquête de séroprévalence nationale réalisée en 2003 a révélé un taux de prévalence de 4,2% au niveau national, avec une tendance à la féminisation de la pandémie (4,7% chez les femmes contre 3,6% chez les hommes). De ce constat est né le « Projet de Prévention du VIH/SIDA chez les femmes et les filles dans les zones urbaines et rurales en République du Congo ». …

  7. Gender-responsive HIV programming for women and girls

    This guidance note is intended to guide countries on how to include a gender perspective and promote equality and human rights for women and girls in their national HIV responses, drawing upon the latest technical developments, guidelines and investment approaches. The inclusion of a gender perspective for women and girls into national HIV responses is important because they continue to be profoundly affected by HIV. As such, addressing their needs is a prerequisite to effectively responding to the epidemic. …

  8. Building a safe house on firm ground: key findings from a global values and preferences survey regarding the sexual and reproductive health and human rights of women living with HIV

    It is estimated that 50–55% of people living with HIV globally are women. In 2006, the World Health Organization (WHO) issued Sexual and reproductive health of women living with HIV/AIDS: Guidelines on care, treatment and support for women living with HIV and their children in resource-constrained settings. These guidelines focused on five key areas; sexual health, family planning, maternal and perinatal health, abortion, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). …

  9. Measuring adolescent women’s sexual and reproductive health within a rights-based framework: Developing and applying an index

    To explore the feasibility of creating an easy-to-use summary data tool from survey data, we combined 16 indicators into an index measuring four dimensions of adolescent women’s sexual and reproductive health and rights. The index was tested using data from 30 countries that had relatively recent nationally representative surveys and were distributed across four regions. The resulting index, denoted by the summary acronym AISAR, examines adolescents’ access to information and services, agency in sexual activity and health, and perceptions of rights within marriage. …

  10. Adding it up: The costs and benefits of investing in sexual and reproductive health

    To help decision-makers evaluate the investments needed in developing countries, this report provides new estimates, for 2014, of the needs for and costs and benefits of sexual and reproductive health interventions in three key areas: Contraceptive services; Maternal, newborn and other pregnancy-related care; Selected services related to HIV and other STIs for women of reproductive age. …

  11. Risk for coerced sex among female youth in Ghana: Roles of family context, school enrollment and relationship experience

    CONTEXT: A better understanding is needed of the variables that may influence the risk of experiencing coerced sex among adolescent females in Sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: Data were collected from 700 female respondents who were interviewed in 2010 and 2012 waves of a longitudinal study of behavioral risk for HIV infection among youth aged 13–14 or 18–19 and living in two towns in southeastern Ghana. …

  12. Addressing the intergenerational transmission of gender-based violence: Focus on educational settings

    Gender-based violence (GBV) is increasingly recognized as a hindrance to economic and social development, in addition to violating the human rights of those experiencing it. Therefore, preventing the perpetration of GBV has ramifications beyond simply ending violence. Gender-based violence is violence perpetrated based on a person’s gender, and reflective of gender inequalities. Patriarchal social norms exist to varying degrees in almost every part of the world, often placing men and boys in dominant positions over women and girls. …

  13. Building the assets to thrive: Addressing the HIV-related vulnerabilities of adolescent girls in Ethiopia

    Reaching vulnerable adolescent girls with information and connecting them to services are not straightforward tasks. Poor girls in Ethiopia have few opportunities to access public institutions such as youth or community centers, health services, financial institutions, and schools. They may not know that they have a right to these services, and service delivery staff might not welcome them. …

  14. Preventing sexual violence and HIV in children

    BACKGROUND: Evidence linking violence against women and HIV has grown, including on the cycle of violence and the links between violence against children and women. To create an effective response to the HIV epidemic, it is key to prevent sexual violence against children and intimate partner violence (IPV) against adolescent girls. …

  15. Gender inequality and HIV transmission: a global analysis

    Introduction: The HIV pandemic disproportionately impacts young women. Worldwide, young women aged 15–24 are infected with HIV at rates twice that of young men, and young women alone account for nearly a quarter of all new HIV infections. The incommensurate HIV incidence in young – often poor – women underscores how social and economic inequalities shape the HIV epidemic. Confluent social forces, including political and gender violence, poverty, racism, and sexism impede equal access to therapies and effective care, but most of all constrain the agency of women. …

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