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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. National HIV/AIDS stigma reduction strategy: Stigma and discrimination reduction in the national HIV/AIDS response

    The Nigerian HIV prevalence rate is declining however, stigma indices does not show corresponding decline. Drivers of the HIV epidemic include the structural, contextual and social factors, such as poverty, gender inequality, inequity and poor access to health care, as well as stigma and discrimination and other human rights violations. However, several positive actions have been taken to address stigma and discrimination issues in the country. …

  2. Leaving no one behind in the health and education sectors: an SDG stocktake in Ghana

    Ghana has been widely acknowledged as one of sub-Saharan Africa’s ‘rising stars’ during the era of the Millennium Development Goals, and has made substantial progress in improving access to health care and education over the past two decades. However, a step change is now needed to ‘reach the furthest behind first’, as committed in Agenda 2030, if Ghana is to leave no one behind in its progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals. …

  3. Accessing the ‘right’ kinds of material and symbolic capital: the role of cash transfers in reducing adolescent school absence and risky behaviour in South Africa

    This article investigates how well South Africa’s Child Support Grant (CSG) responds to the material and psychosocial needs of adolescents, and the resultant effects on schooling and risky behaviour. One driver of schooling decisions is shame related to poverty and the ‘social cost’ of school, where a premium must often be paid for fashionable clothes or accessories. The other driver relates to symbolic and consumptive capital gained through engaging in sexual exchange relationships. The anticipated impacts from the CSG are partial because of these non-material drivers of adolescent choices. …

  4. When caring is not enough: The limits of teachers’ support for South African primary school-girls in the context of sexual violence

    Between 2011 and 2012, 40.1% of all sexual offences in South Africa involved children under 18. Important scholarship has demonstrated how large-scale social and economic inequalities structure African girls’ risk to and experience of sexual violence leading to a condemnation of violent masculinities and the social processes that produce it. Under conditions of chronic poverty and unstable living conditions, girls’ vulnerability to sexual violence is increased. …

  5. Intersectionality of HIV stigma and masculinity in eastern Uganda: implications for involving men in HIV programmes

    Background: Stigma is a determinant of social and health inequalities. In addition, some notions of masculinity can disadvantage men in terms of health outcomes. However, few studies have explored the extent to which these two axes of social inequality intersect to influence men’s health outcomes. This paper investigates the intersection of HIV stigma and masculinity, and its perceived impact on men’s participation in and utilisation of HIV services in Uganda. Methods: Interviews and focus group discussions were conducted in Mbale and Jinja districts of Uganda between June and October 2010. …

  6. Addressing HIV/AIDS education: A look at teacher preparedness in Ghana

    Our research shows that social science university trained Ghanaian student/teachers do have the knowledge, confidence, and willingness to address HIV/AIDS issues in their teaching, yet they do not. The reason, we argue, is that teachers have little incentive to address contentious issues in the classroom. Questionnaires were administered to 382 University of Education, Winneba students, 61 of whom were just returning from year-long placements. …

  7. Educational formations: Gendered experiences of schooling in local contexts

    Content: - Educational Formations: Gendered Experiences of Schooling in Local Contexts; Girls’ Schooling, Gender Equity, and the Global Education and Development Agenda: Conceptual Disconnections, Political Struggles, and the Difficulties of Practice; Situating Empowerment for Millennial Schoolgirls in Gujarat, India and Shaanxi, China; Engendering Agency: The Differentiated Impact of Educational Initiatives in Zambia and India; History Transformed?: Gender in World War II Narratives in U.S. …

  8. Schools Against AIDS: Secondary School Enrollment and Cross-National Disparities in AIDS Death Rates

    Although AIDS is a leading cause of death worldwide, the consequences of the pandemic are remarkably unequally distributed cross-nationally. This unequal global distribution of AIDS deaths should be of interest to sociologists because of the potential role of structural forces in accounting for these disparities. Yet, there has been relatively little sociological research on this topic. Using underutilized cross national data on AIDS deaths, this study examines the macro-level sources of variation in AIDS death rates across 115 countries. …

  9. Breaking vows: early and forced marriage and girls' education

    One in every three girls in the developing world is married by the age of 18. One in seven marries before they reach the age of 15. In countries like Niger, Chad, Mali, Bangladesh, Guinea and the Central African Republic (CAR), the rate of early and forced marriage is 60 per cent and over. It is particularly high in South Asia (46 per cent) and in sub-Saharan Africa (38 per cent). …

  10. Social outcome expectations regarding delayed sexual debut among adolescents in Mankweng, South Africa

    Aims: To describe outcome expectations related to delayed sexual transition, to examine the dimensionality and internal consistency of such expectations, and to examine variations in social outcome expectations across subgroups defined by demographic variables, indicators of socioeconomic status and predictors related to school and educational ambitions. Methods: Data stem from a survey among school students (grades 8-12) in Mankweng, Limpopo, South Africa (n=5,697). …

  11. Intimate partner violence, relationship power inequity, and incidence of HIV infection in young women in South Africa: a cohort study

    Cross-sectional studies have shown that intimate partner violence and gender inequity in relationships are associated with increased prevalence of HIV in women. Yet temporal sequence and causality have been questioned, and few HIV prevention programmes address these issues. The article assessed whether intimate partner violence and relationship power inequity increase risk of incident HIV infection in South African women. …

  12. Integrating Multiple Gender Strategies to Improve HIV and AIDS interventions: A Compendium of programs in Africa

    The public health and international development communities have known for nearly two decades that gender - the way in which societies define acceptable roles, responsibilities, and behaviors of women and men - strongly influences how HIV spreads and how people respond to the epidemic. Because of the interrelated factors that contribute to HIV infection, there is growing recognition that using multiple approaches in HIV and AIDS programming is more effective than single strategies. …

  13. Assessment of the socio-economic impact of HIV and AIDS on key sectors in Kenya

    The report shows that HIV and AIDS has varied and far reaching socio-economic impacts to the persons infected and affected and to the economy in general. These effects cannot be ignored in any of the sectors and the economy as a whole, if national and millennium development goals are to be achieved. HIV and AIDS has the greatest effect on people in their prime years of economic productivity, and is uniquely devastating as it increases poverty and reverses human development achievements. …

  14. VIH et SIDA, Droits Fondamentaux Pour Tous

    VIH et SIDA, Droits Fondamentaux pour Tous est une brochure éditée par le HCR en 2006. Il s'agit d'une petite bande dessinée qui s'adresse aux personnes déplacées et particulièrement vulnérables que sont les réfugiés et les rapatriés. Il vise a promouvoir un environnement accueillant et sans discrimination pour les réfugiés et les rapatriés. Souvent accusés à tort de véhiculer le VIH et d'autres maladies, la brochure aborde ainsi diverses situations auxquelles les réfugiés peuvent être confrontés dans leur pays d'accueil comme l'exclusion, la discrimination ou l'exploitation sexuelle. …

  15. Evaluating the need for sex education in developing countries: sexual behaviour, knowledge of preventing sexually transmitted infections/HIV and unplanned pregnancy

    The document is an article called "Evaluating the need for sex education in developing countries: sexual behaviour, knowledge of preventing sexually transmitted infections/HIV and unplanned pregnancy" and published in the review "Sex education" in November 2005. It was written by Susheela Singh, Akinrinola Bankole and Vanessa Woog. …

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