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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. A survey on re-entry of pregnant girls in primary and secondary schools in Uganda: survey briefing

    The main objective of the Survey on Re-Entry of Pregnant Girls in Primary and Secondary Schools in Uganda (2011) is to collect evidence and articulate policy options to address the re-integration of pregnant girls and child mothers in school in Uganda. …

  2. Developing an education sector response to early and unintended pregnancy

    This discussion paper was prepared by UNESCO for the global consultation on education sector responses to early and unintended pregnancy (EUP) held in Johannesburg in November 2014. The paper describes global and regional specificities of EUP, the causes behind it, and the implications for the education sector, highlighting the current status of the education sector response and examples of ongoing programs and initiatives aimed at preventing EUP through comprehensive sexuality education and ensuring the right to education for pregnant and parenting girls.

  3. Women living with HIV speak out against violence: A collection of essays and reflections of women living with and affected by HIV

    Violence against women and girls is an unacceptable violation of basic human rights. It also is so widespread that ending it must be a global public health priority. An estimated one in three women is beaten, coerced into sex or otherwise abused by an intimate partner during her lifetime. Intimate partner violence has been shown to increase the risk of HIV infection by around 50%, and violence (and the fear of violence) deters women and girls from seeking services for HIV prevention, treatment, care and support.

  4. Effectiveness of a comprehensive sexual and gender-based violence prevention project for in-school girls in Swaziland

    Swaziland is one of the sub-Saharan African countries affected by Sexual and Gender Based Violence (SGBV) and HIV and AIDS, with women facing greater risk compared to men. In response to increasing reports of violence against women and children in the country, the Swaziland Action Group Against Abuse (SWAGAA) launched a Girls’ Empowerment Clubs (GEC) program in primary and secondary schools in order prevent SGBV cases. …

  5. WASH in schools empowers girls' education in Freetown, Sierra Leone: An assessment of menstrual hygiene management in schools

    From June through July 2012, Emory University and UNICEF collaborated in research aimed to understand the range of challenges faced by girls during menstruation in urban Freetown, as well as the determinants of those challenges. This report presents the methods, findings and key programmatic recommendations to address menstruation-related challenges among girls. More than 100 participants were engaged in eight schools and two communities, including teachers and girls, both in school and out of school.

  6. WASH in schools empowers girls’ education in Masbate Province and Metro Manila, Philippines: An assessment of menstrual hygiene management in schools

    Emory University, UNICEF Philippines, Plan Philippines and Save the Children Philippines carried out a qualitative assessment of menstruation-related challenges girls face in school. Girls, boys, teachers and mothers at 10 schools in Masbate Province and the National Capital Region were interviewed for their opinions. This report highlights the challenges girls face in school during menses, describes the determinants of these challenges, and outlines the educational and health impacts of these challenges as voiced by the participants. …

  7. Strengthening the enabling environment for women and girls: what is the evidence in social and structural approaches in the HIV response?

    There is growing interest in expanding public health approaches that address social and structural drivers that affect the environment in which behaviour occurs. Half of those living with HIV infection are women. The sociocultural and political environment in which women live can enable or inhibit their ability to protect themselves from acquiring HIV. …

  8. The girl with her period is the one to hang her head. Reflections on menstrual management among schoolgirls in rural Kenya

    Background. The onset of menstruation is a landmark event in the life of a young woman. Yet the complications and challenges that can accompany such an event have been understudied, specifically in resource-poor settings. As interventions aim to improve female attendance in schools, it is important to explore how menstruation is perceived and navigated by girls in the school setting. This research conveys rural Kenyan schoolgirls' perceptions and practices related to menstruation. Methods. Data were collected at six rural schools in the Nyanza Province of Western Kenya. …

  9. Celebrating womanhood: How better menstrual hygiene management is the path to better health, dignity and business

    This report details the Celebrating Womanhood: Menstrual Hygiene Management event held in March 2013 to discuss menstruation, a subject which is even now taboo in the higest corridors of funding and decision-making.

  10. School policy on learner pregnancy in Namibia: Background to reform

    This paper seeks to contribute to the discussion and acceptance of a new policy on learner pregnancy, by providing relevant background and comparative information.

  11. Study on menstrual management in Uganda

    This pilot research study on the impact of menstrual hygiene on girls in school is primarily aimed at the Ministry of Education and Sports and the National Sanitation Working Group. Within the context of Uganda, the results of this study will be used to provide evidence-based advocacy on the role of upper primary girls, from the ages of 13-18, whom have started menstruating, with a specific emphasis placed on the issues and challenges that they face at school. …

  12. Gender and sexual vulnerability of young women in Africa: experiences of young girls in secondary schools in Uganda

    Sexuality is part and parcel of students' experiences of schooling manifested in personal friendships, relations and social interaction. These encounters constitute sites within which sexual identities are developed, practiced and actively produced through processes of negotiation. Drawing on qualitative research conducted in 14 selected secondary schools in Central and Western Uganda, the study illuminates gendered sexual vulnerability within patterns of social interaction and young girls gendered experiences and negotiation of their sexuality. …

  13. Silenced and forgotten: HIV and AIDS agenda setting paper for women living with HIV, sex workers and LGBT individuals in southern African and Indian Ocean states

    The impact of the HIV and AIDS epidemic is felt hardest by the individuals who are infected or affected by the disease, and in particular by individuals who are especially vulnerable to HIV infection due to stigma and discrimination, poverty, a lack of access to education, health and other services that promote HIV awareness. However, the impact of HIV and AIDS goes beyond the individual or household level – it affects nations as a whole. …

  14. Women out loud: How women living with HIV will help the world end AIDS

    Women may make up half the world’s population, but they do not share it equally. This is especially evident when it comes to HIV. Half of all people living with HIV are women, yet many are underserved or do not know their status. Despite the many successes we have seen, women still face inequalities that will keep the AIDS response from reaching its full potential.

  15. Women and HIV in Viet Nam: Meeting the Needs

    This report introduces current knowledge on the particular situation that Vietnamese women face with regard to HIV. Women are a critical population within the epidemic, not only in terms of sheer numbers, but as this report emphasizes, in terms of the disproportionate toll that HIV can take on their lives. Even as the rate of infection begins to stabilize among high-risk men, transmission continues from these men to their wives and regular partners. …

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