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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. A tool for change: working with the media on issues relating to sexual orientation, gender identity, expression and sex characteristics in Thailand

    A Tool for Change: Working with the Media on Issues Relating to Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity, Expression and Sex Characteristics in Thailand analyzes news media coverage of Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity, Expression and Sex Characteristics (SOGIESC), and LGBTIQ identities across media platforms in Thailand. The research found that LGBTIQ people are often represented in the news media inaccurately, stereotypically, or without a clear understanding of SOGIE. The study recommends that a professional code of conduct on reporting SOGIESC issues be developed. …

  2. A possible role of stigma and fears in HIV infection

    Fear/Stigma associated with HIV/AIDS continues to avert responses to the epidemic. Data (obtained in Tshwane metropolis) were used to test stigma/fear dimensions of an instrument. Factor analysis identified five foci of fear and stigma. There were significant differences on the factor scale measuring fear of sex, with females and younger respondents having significantly greater fear. Results were interpreted within a cultural context that realises that decreasing AIDS stigma is a vital step in stemming the pandemic.

  3. The hidden dimension: experience of self-stigma among young men who have sex with men and young transgender women and the linkages to HIV in Asia and the Pacific

    MSM and transgender people requires addressing self-issues and the linkages with HIV vulnerability and risk behavior. Yet to date, many HIV-related programs in Asia have failed to address self-stigma. To better understand how self-stigma relates to HIV, YVC undertook an in-person consultation in October 2012 in Bangkok, Thailand, and commissioned in-country research in 10 countries: Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Laos, Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam. …

  4. The national HIV and AIDS stigma and discrimination index: summary report

    The National HIV and AIDS Stigma and Discrimination Study, was a cross-sectional survey which collected data from the 47 counties, grouped into 30 clusters selected based on observed regional variations in HIV prevalence, socio-cultural and economic characteristics. The stigma study, targeted the general population, key populations as well as PLHIV is a compilation of the thoughts and attitudes regarding HIV, and, far too frequently, painful experiences of people living with HIV.

  5. Revealing the full extent of households’ experiences of HIV and AIDS in rural South Africa

    Households experience HIV and AIDS in a complex and changing set of environments. These include health and welfare treatment and support services, HIV-related stigma and discrimination, and individual and household social and economic circumstances. This paper documents the experiences of 12 households directly affected by HIV and AIDS in rural KwaZulu Natal, South Africa, between 2002 and 2004. The households were observed during repeated visits over a period of more than a year by ethnographically trained researchers. …

  6. Hidden from health: structural stigma, sexual orientation concealment, and HIV across 38 countries in the European MSM Internet Survey

    Objective: Substantial country-level variation exists in prejudiced attitudes towards male homosexuality and in the extent to which countries promote the unequal treatment of MSM through discriminatory laws. The impact and underlying mechanisms of country-level stigma on odds of diagnosed HIV, sexual opportunities, and experience of HIV-prevention services, needs and behaviours have rarely been examined, however. Design: Data come from the European MSM Internet Survey (EMIS), which was administered between June and August 2010 across 38 European countries (N = 174 209). …

  7. HIV and stigma: The media challenge

    Despite the progress being made in the global response to HIV and AIDS, stigma remains a major obstacle to prevention and treatment. It is manifested in many different ways and fear of disgrace prevents people from coming forward for HIV testing and treatment. Key populations – sex workers and their clients, men who have sex with men, the transgender community and people who inject drugs – are particularly affected. The role of the media in tackling HIV related stigma is crucial. It is seen as one of the drivers of HIV reduction, yet the media is far from reaching its full potential. …

  8. Gender nonconforming youth: Discipline disparities, school push-out, and the school-to-prison pipeline

    The school-to-prison pipeline, or STPP, refers to a set of school policies and practices that push students away from education and onto a pathway toward the juvenile detention and the prison industrial complex. School policies and practices that promote the STPP include “zero tolerance” policies, increased police presence, suspension and expulsion, and harsh and disparate disciplinary practices. Research has demonstrated that students pushed out by such policies, practices, and disciplinary disparities are disproportionally students of color and low-income students. …

  9. Action on bullying. A review of the effectiveness of action taken by schools to address bullying on the grounds of pupil's protected characteristics

    This report is published in response to a request for advice from the Welsh Government in the Minister’s annual remit letter to Estyn for 2013-2014. The report examines the effectiveness of action taken by schools to address bullying, with particular reference to bullying on the grounds of pupils’ protected characteristics (age, disability, gender reassignment, marriage and civil partnership, pregnancy and maternity, race, religion or belief, sex and sexual orientation). The report includes case studies of best practice illustrating how the best practice schools deal with bullying. …

  10. Integrating a youth-based stigma and discrimination reduction curriculum in higher education: St Xavier’s College

    Stigmatizing attitudes towards people living with HIV (PLHIV) are common among young people. Yet there are few opportunities for youth to be exposed to interventions that address the key drivers of stigma and discrimination, namely lack of awareness of stigma and its harmful consequences, social judgment and fear of infection through casual contact. This project demonstrated that higher education can be an effective entry point for stigma reduction, by working with several groups and environments, in this case the faculty, students and college. …

  11. Courage and Hope: Stories with Teachers living with HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa

    This book is a collection of stories from teachers living with HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa. The stories documented here give voice to the real life experiences of 12 HIV-positive teachers, five of whom are women, from Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Ghana, Kenya, Mozambique, Rwanda, Senegal, Tanzania (both Mainland and Zanzibar), and Zambia. The teachers recount their experiences of discovering their HIV-positive status and how this has aff ected them in their families, their communities, and their professional lives. …

  12. Sex Between Men in Your City. A situational analysis of community rsponses to sexual health and HIV among men who have sex with men and transgender populations in six metrepolitan cities in developed Asia

    While developed countries in Asia are experiencing a low-level HIV epidemic prevalence is much higher in specific populations such as men who have sex with men, sex workers, and people who use drugs. Many MSM and transgender people report discrimination which limits their access to health services and many other areas such as education, employment and legal services. …

  13. Do South African learners stigmatize HIV/AIDS infected peers?

    The results of this Brief point to an increased significance of strengthening educational programmes and policies in the schooling sector as South Africa strives to reduce not only the prevalence of HIV and AIDS but also to develop positive learner attitudes among children of school going age. …

  14. School culture and the well-being of same-sex attracted youth

    This study assesses how variations in heteronormative culture in high schools affect the well-being of same-sex-attracted youth. The authors focus on the stigmatization of same-sex attraction (rather than identity or behavior) to better understand how heteronormativity may marginalize a wide range of youth. …

  15. HIV-related knowledge and stigma among high school students in Libya

    This study aims to measure indicators of HIV-related stigma among students of high schools in the North West of Libya. The results will be part of baseline data and evaluation of the impact of successive interventions. Understanding the behaviour of risk groups in a society, such as young people, is essential in order to draw effective prevention strategies. Behavioural surveillance surveys have been shown to make an important and useful contribution to informing the response to HIV. This study was part of a large Knowledge, Attitude, Beliefs and Practice survey. …

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