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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Creating Futures: lessons from the development of a livelihood-strengthening curriculum for young people in eThekwini's informal settlements

    Comprehending praxis is a critical step in developing interventions that can have a real-world impact on people's lives. In this paper, we reflect on the lessons learned in the development of a curriculum for young people living in informal settlements in eThekwini, who are exposed to numerous vulnerabilities, including HIV-related risks associated with precarious urban livelihoods. Behavioural interventions have not led to commensurate reductions in HIV incidence, and the impact of these approaches remains regulated by numerous contextual conditions affecting those participating. …

  2. Unintended pregnancies among young women living in urban slums: Evidence from a prospective study in Nairobi City, Kenya

    Background: Despite the significant proportion of young people residing in slum communities, little attention has been paid to the sexual and reproductive health (SRH) challenges they face during their transition to adulthood within this harsh environment. Little is known about the extent to which living in extreme environments, like slums, impact SRH outcomes, especially during this key developmental period. …

  3. Projet de prévention du VIH/SIDA chez les femmes et les filles dans les zones urbaines et rurales en République du Congo : Rapport d'évaluation finale

    En dépit des efforts du Gouvernement et des organisations de la société civile, notamment des associations féminines, le risque d’infection au VIH en République du Congo reste élevé. L’enquête de séroprévalence nationale réalisée en 2003 a révélé un taux de prévalence de 4,2% au niveau national, avec une tendance à la féminisation de la pandémie (4,7% chez les femmes contre 3,6% chez les hommes). De ce constat est né le « Projet de Prévention du VIH/SIDA chez les femmes et les filles dans les zones urbaines et rurales en République du Congo ». …

  4. Coping with unintended pregnancies: Narratives from adolescents in Nairobi’s slums

    The health and other risks associated with early pregnancy and sexual activity raise urgent need for appropriate interventions and programs to address adolescent reproductive behaviors. It is important to understand the circumstances surrounding, and factors associated with unintended pregnancies among young people, the challenges that limit their ability to protect their sexual and reproductive health, and how they deal with the outcomes of unintended pregnancy. …

  5. HIV-related discrimination among grade six students in nine southern African countries

    Background: HIV-related stigmatisation and discrimination by young children towards their peers have important consequences at the individual level and for our response to the epidemic, yet research on this area is limited. Methods: We used nationally representative data to examine discrimination of HIV-positive children by grade six students (n = 39,664) across nine countries in Southern Africa: Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia and Zimbabwe. …

  6. Behavioral determinants of urban youth sexual and reproductive health. A secondary analysis of DHS data for Benin and Madagascar

    Youth aged 15-24 represent a growing and heterogeneous proportion of the world’s population. Investing in young people’s health and wellbeing is critical to promoting growth and development, not only for individuals but also for communities and nations. The majority of today’s youth are living in urban areas.In an urban or city environment, opportunities for jobs, education, better housing and health care are often more widely available than in rural areas. But these benefits are usually unevenly distributed and urban poor have limited or no access to many urban amenities. …

  7. Status report on the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents living in urban slums in Kenya

    Young people face numerous health challenges during their transition to adulthood. These challenges include, among others, limited access to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) information and services. Unmet SRH needs among adolescents may contribute to sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, and unintended pregnancies. Adolescent pregnancies are associated with several adverse outcomes, such as miscarriage, unsafe abortion, obstructed labor, and other complications, which can result in long-term morbidity and even death. …

  8. An innovative approach to using both cellphones and the radio to identify young people’s sexual concerns in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

    Background: As teenagers have easy access to both radio programs and cell phones, the current study used these tools so that young people could anonymously identify questions about sex and other related concerns in the urban environment of the Democratic Republic of Congo. The purpose of this healthcare intervention was to identify and address concerns raised by young people, which are related to sexual health, and which promote youth health. Methods: This healthcare intervention was conducted over a six month period and consisted of a survey carried out in Kinshasa. …

  9. Non-formal education and livelihood skills for marginalised street and slum youth in Uganda

    The Building Capacities for Non formal Education and Life Skills Programmes project in Uganda was implemented by Uganda Youth Development Link (UYDEL) with financial and technical support from UNESCO - Section for Literacy and non Formal Education in 2004-05; aiming at assisting vulnerable and marginalised youth affected by HIV/AIDS and other risk behaviour, those that may be homeless or living in hopeless situation both in urban centres and rural areas. …

  10. The provision of a health promoting environment for HIV/AIDS education: the case of Namibian senior secondary schools

    HIV/AIDS programmes in schools ultimately intend to decrease high risk sexual behaviour. One factor facilitating this outcome is a strong health promoting environment in the school. This paper reports a study surveying the health promoting environments supporting HIV/AIDS education in Namibian senior secondary schools. It develops a two dimensional model for classifying the strength of a school’s health promoting environment. The findings show that schools have different strengths of health promoting environments linked more to their size than to a rural or urban location. …

  11. Evaluation of HIV/AIDS prevention through peer education, counselling, health care, training and urban refuges in Ghana

    Since 1996, Ireland Aid has supported UNICEF Ghana in the implementation of five activities that promote behaviour change to limit the spread of HIV/AIDS and STIs. The interventions are run by different local organisations, and have provided over 75,000 in and out-of-school youth and commercial sex workers with preventive education. People retained the information given, are knowledgeable about how HIV is transmitted, and can name key preventive methods. They pass on the information to their friends. Commercial sex workers were empowered to support one another in negotiating for safer sex. …

  12. Cross-sectional study assessing HIV related knowledge, attitudes and behavior in Namibian public sector employees in capital and regional settings

    The study objective was to assess the current status of HIV knowledge, attitudes and behavior (KAB) among employees of Namibian ministries. As most HIV campaigning takes place in the capital of Windhoek, an additional aim was to compare Windhoek to four regions (Hardap, Erongo, Oshana, and Caprivi). Between January and March 2011 a cross-sectional survey was conducted in two Namibian ministries, with participants selected randomly from the workforce. Data collection was based on questionnaires. 832 participants were included in the study (51.6% male). …

  13. The Socio-Economic Determinants of HIV/AIDS Infection Rates in Lesotho, Malawi, Swaziland and Zimbabwe

    Using data from the Demographic and Health Survey, this article analyses the relationship between HIV status and the socio‐economic and demographic characteristics of adults in Lesotho, Malawi, Swaziland and Zimbabwe. It constructs the risk profile of the average adult, computes the values of age, education and wealth where the estimated probability of infection assumes its highest value, and determines the percentage of adults for whom these three factors are positively correlated with that probability. …

  14. Economic status, education and risky sexual behavior for urban Botswana women

    This study investigated the relationship between economic status, education and risky sexual behavior for urban Botswana women. The data used are a nationally representative sample from the Botswana AIDS Impact Survey conducted in 2004. An un-weighted sample of 2215 women aged 15-49, who have had sexual intercourse was considered for analysis. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses are used to gain insights into the potential linkages between economic status, education and risky sexual behavior. …

  15. The sexual behaviour of adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa: patterns and trends from national surveys

    Objectives: To describe the sexual and reproductive behaviour of adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly 15- to 19-year-olds. Methods: Using DHS/AIS data (2000–2010), nine indicators of adolescent behaviour and one of adult attitudes towards condom education for adolescents were described for 24 countries. Indicators were disaggregated by gender, urban/rural residency and educational status, and time trends were described. Results: Up to 25% of 15- to 19-year-olds reported sex before age 15; this proportion shrank over time in many countries. …

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