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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. We've got the power: women, adolescent girls and the HIV response

    This publication marks the 25th anniversary of the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action, the most comprehensive and progressive global policy road map for fulfilling the human rights of women and girls and achieving gender equality. Progress has been made in key areas, the report shows, however, that many of the promises made to improve the lives of women and girls around the world have not been kept. It points out how the HIV epidemic holds a mirror up to these inequalities and injustices, and how the gaps in rights and services for women and girls are exacerbating the epidemic. …

  2. Violence against adolescent girls: trends and lessons for East Africa

    This report seeks to explore the unique experience of adolescent girls by examining the types of gender-based violence affecting this group as well as drivers of this violence, within the frame of high levels of gender inequality in South Sudan. Data for this study was collected as part of the research program of the What Works to Prevent Violence Against Women and Girls (‘What Works’) Consortium funded by the government of the United Kingdom (UK)’s Department for International Development (DfID). …

  3. "It's not normal": sexual exploitation, harassment and abuse in secondary schools in Senegal

    “It’s not normal” documents how female students are exposed to sexual exploitation, harassment, and abuse in middle and upper secondary schools. Based on interviews and focus group discussions with more than 160 girls and young women, the report documents cases of teachers who abuse their position of authority by sexually harassing girls and engage in sexual relations with them, promising students money, good grades, food, or items such as mobile phones and new clothes. …

  4. Reproductive Health Survey Russia 2011: executive summary

    Specific objectives of the RURHS11 were: to assess current levels and trends in fertility, abortion, contraception, and various other reproductive health indicators; to enable policy makers, program managers, and researchers to evaluate existing reproductive health programs and develop new strategies; to study factors that affect fertility, contraceptive use, and maternal and infant health, such as geographic and sociodemographic factors, breastfeeding patterns, use of induced abortion, and availability of family planning services; to identify characteristics of women at increased risk of uni …

  5. We want to learn about good love: findings from a qualitative study assessing the links between comprehensive sexuality education and violence against women and girls

    Comprehensive sexuality education (CSE) – including learning about relationships, gender and gender-based violence (GBV), sex, sexuality, and sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) – can empower young people to make informed, autonomous decisions regarding their current and future relationships. CSE may also influence a positive shift in social norms which underpin violence against women and girls (VAWG), such as harmful notions of masculinity, and rigid gender roles and stereotypes – both in schools and the wider community. …

  6. Embarazo adolescente y oportunidades en América Latina y el Caribe: sobre maternidad temprana, pobreza y logros económicos

    El presente informe examina los factores asociados con el embarazo adolescente y la maternidad temprana y crea un marco para explorar estos temas de forma sistemática hacia el diseño de intervenciones efectivas en el marco de políticas en América L atina. El mensaje principal que este reporte pretende divulgar es que la pobreza y la falta de oportunidades son factores clave asociados a la maternidad temprana. …

  7. The shrinking world of girls at puberty: violence and gender-divergent access to the public sphere among adolescents in South Africa

    Participatory mapping was undertaken with single-sex groups of grade 5 and grade 8–9 children in KwaZulu-Natal. Relative to grade 5 students, wide gender divergence in access to the public sphere was found at grade 8–9. With puberty, girls' worlds shrink, while boys' expand. At grade 5, female-defined community areas were equal or larger in size than those of males. Community area mapped by urban grade 8–9 girls, however, was only one-third that of male classmates and two-fifths that of grade 5 girls. Conversely, community area mapped by grade 8–9 boys was twice that of grade 5 boys. …

  8. Forced out: mandatory pregnancy testing and the expulsion of pregnant students in Tanzanian schools

    This publication documents the forced pregnancy testing and expulsion of pregnant school girls in mainland Tanzania. Launched in 2013 and based on in-depth interviews with young women who have undergone these practices, as well as teachers, government officials, and health care providers, this report provides concrete evidence and compelling stories of the numerous human rights violations many Tanzanian girls face in the pursuit of education. In addition, the report provides key recommendations to the Tanzanian Government, regional human rights bodies, and the international donor community. …

  9. Women living with HIV speak out against violence: A collection of essays and reflections of women living with and affected by HIV

    Violence against women and girls is an unacceptable violation of basic human rights. It also is so widespread that ending it must be a global public health priority. An estimated one in three women is beaten, coerced into sex or otherwise abused by an intimate partner during her lifetime. Intimate partner violence has been shown to increase the risk of HIV infection by around 50%, and violence (and the fear of violence) deters women and girls from seeking services for HIV prevention, treatment, care and support.

  10. Because I am a girl: The state of the world's girls 2014. Pathways to power: Creating sustainable change for adolescent girls

    This is the eighth in the annual ‘Because I am a Girl’ report series, published by Plan, which assesses the current state of the world’s girls. While women and children are recognised in policy and planning, girls’ needs and rights are often ignored. The reports provide evidence, including the voices of girls themselves, as to why they need to be treated differently from boys and adult women. They also use information from primary research, in particular a small study set up in 2006 following 142 girls from nine countries. …

  11. Risk for coerced sex among female youth in Ghana: Roles of family context, school enrollment and relationship experience

    CONTEXT: A better understanding is needed of the variables that may influence the risk of experiencing coerced sex among adolescent females in Sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: Data were collected from 700 female respondents who were interviewed in 2010 and 2012 waves of a longitudinal study of behavioral risk for HIV infection among youth aged 13–14 or 18–19 and living in two towns in southeastern Ghana. …

  12. Gender based violence in South African schools

    This paper looks at issues of gender-based violence in the education sector in South Africa through a review of literature and statistics of recent research by international organizations.

  13. Boys are more vulnerable than girls to school-related gender-based violence: results from a survey in Zambia

    In Zambia, 47% percent of women aged 15-49 have ever experienced physical violence & 15% experienced sexual and/or gender-based violence (DHS 2007). School-related gender-based violence (SRGBV) is a global problem with serious implications for individual and population health and education outcomes. SRGBV results in sexual, physical, or psychological harm to girls and boys. SRGBV may include any form of violence or abuse based on gendered stereotypes or that targets students on the basis of their sex. …

  14. Addressing the intergenerational transmission of gender-based violence: Focus on educational settings

    Gender-based violence (GBV) is increasingly recognized as a hindrance to economic and social development, in addition to violating the human rights of those experiencing it. Therefore, preventing the perpetration of GBV has ramifications beyond simply ending violence. Gender-based violence is violence perpetrated based on a person’s gender, and reflective of gender inequalities. Patriarchal social norms exist to varying degrees in almost every part of the world, often placing men and boys in dominant positions over women and girls. …

  15. Strengthening the enabling environment for women and girls: what is the evidence in social and structural approaches in the HIV response?

    There is growing interest in expanding public health approaches that address social and structural drivers that affect the environment in which behaviour occurs. Half of those living with HIV infection are women. The sociocultural and political environment in which women live can enable or inhibit their ability to protect themselves from acquiring HIV. …

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