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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Deadly Delay: South Africa's Efforts to Prevent HIV in Survivors of Sexual Violence

    This 73-page report documents how government inaction and misinformation from high-level officials have undermined the effectiveness of South Africa’s program to provide rape survivors with post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) — antiretroviral drugs that can reduce the risk of contracting HIV from an HIV-positive attacker.

  2. Silenced and forgotten: HIV and AIDS agenda setting paper for women living with HIV, sex workers and LGBT individuals in southern African and Indian Ocean states

    The impact of the HIV and AIDS epidemic is felt hardest by the individuals who are infected or affected by the disease, and in particular by individuals who are especially vulnerable to HIV infection due to stigma and discrimination, poverty, a lack of access to education, health and other services that promote HIV awareness. However, the impact of HIV and AIDS goes beyond the individual or household level – it affects nations as a whole. …

  3. The importance of addressing gender inequality in efforts to end vertical transmission of HIV

    The recently launched ‘‘Global Plan towards the Elimination of New HIV Infections among Children by 2015 and Keeping their Mothers Alive’’ sets forth ambitious targets that will require more widespread implementation of comprehensive prevention of vertical HIV transmission (PMTCT) programmes. As PMTCT policymakers and implementers work toward these new goals, increased attention must be paid to the role that gender inequality plays in limiting PMTCT programmatic progress. …

  4. They are destroying our futures: Sexual violence against girls in Zambia's schools

    This report examines the problem of sexual violence against girls in Zambian schools. In Zambia, many girls are raped, sexually abused, harassed, and assaulted by teachers and male classmates. They are also subjected to sexual harassment and attack while travelling to and from school. Such abuse is a devastating and often overlooked manifestation of the gender-based violence that occurs in numerous settings in Zambia and other countries throughout the world. …

  5. Sexuality and the limits of agency among South African teenage women: theorising femininities and their connections to HIV risk practices

    In South Africa, both HIV and gender-based violence are highly prevalent. Gender inequalities give men considerable relational power over young women, particularly in circumstances of poverty and where sex is materially rewarded. Young women are often described as victims of men, but this inadequately explains women's observed sexual agency. This paper takes a different approach. The authors use qualitative interviews and ethnographic observation among 16 young women from the rural Eastern Cape to explore ways young women construct their femininities and exercise agency. …

  6. Individual and community-level tolerance of spouse abuse and the association with the circumstances of first sex among youth from six sub-Saharan African countries

    Youth who engage in early and premarital sex are at risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infections. Most prevention programs ignore the mediating influence of the threat and experience of violence on these outcomes. Using nationally representative data from Lesotho, Malawi, Zimbabwe, Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda, the autors used multivariate analyses to examine the association between individual- and community-level tolerance of spouse abuse on the age and circumstances of sexual debut among female youth. The youth sample sizes ranged from a high of 5007 in Malawi to a low of 3050 in Lesotho. …

  7. When Girls' Lives Matter: Ending Forced and Early Marriage in Cameroon

    The past decade has witnessed a dramatic increase in awareness about early and forced marriage of girls as a widespread violation of human rights. In short, early and forced marriage exacerbate gender inequality and the likelihood of poor outcomes throughout life. Combining public education about the negative effects of early and forced marriage with positive preventive strategies is valuable. The Association for the Struggle Against Violence Against Women (ALVF) in Cameroon is one such example. …

  8. Plan d'action triennal opérationnel de lutte contre la féminisation de l'épidémie du sida et les violences basées sur le genre en RDC (2010-2012)

    La situation générale de l'épidémie du VIH/sida en RDC se caractérise par sa tendance à la féminisation, à la juvénilisation et à la ruralisation. Parmi les déterminants qui favorisent sa propagation figurent l'ignorance des précautions à prendre pour éviter de contracter le virus, l'accès limité aux services de prévention, les conditions de vie difficile, la promiscuité, la précocité des rapports sexuels, le multi partenariat sexuel et la mobilité des populations. …

  9. Women, girls and HIV and AIDS: education, women's economic empowerment and workplace violence

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