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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Adolescent bodily integrity and freedom from violence in Ethiopia. A report on GAGE Ethiopia baseline findings

    The report on adolescent bodily integrity and freedom from violence is one of a series of short baseline reports focused on emerging mixed-methods findings from the Gender and Adolescence: Global Evidence (GAGE) longitudinal study baseline data collection. […] Drawing on a gender and capabilities framework, the report focuses on adolescents’ experiences and perceptions of age-, sexual and gender-based violence in Ethiopia, paying particular attention to gender and regional differences in risks and access to services as well as those between adolescents with disabilities and those without.

  2. Education data brief: Global prevalence of school-related gender-based violence (SRGBV)

    This Education Data Brief provides an overview of the global prevalence of School-Related Gender-Based Violence (SRGBV), using recent data to illustrate the scope and scale of SRGBV worldwide. In addition, the Data Brief provides country-level statistics when available, with a focus on sub-Saharan Africa. The Data Brief is divided into two primary sections: the Prevalence of SRGBV and the Impact of SRGBV. …

  3. Behind the numbers: ending school violence and bullying

    School-related violence in all its forms, including bullying, is an infringement of children’s and adolescents’ rights to education and health and well-being.

  4. "It's not normal": sexual exploitation, harassment and abuse in secondary schools in Senegal

    “It’s not normal” documents how female students are exposed to sexual exploitation, harassment, and abuse in middle and upper secondary schools. Based on interviews and focus group discussions with more than 160 girls and young women, the report documents cases of teachers who abuse their position of authority by sexually harassing girls and engage in sexual relations with them, promising students money, good grades, food, or items such as mobile phones and new clothes. …

  5. The effects of school-related gender-based violence on academic performance : evidence from Botswana, Ghana and South Africa

    School-Related Gender-Based Violence (SRGBV) is a global phenomenon that has the potential for serious and significant effects on students’ well-being and performance. It is based on and reinforces gendered stereotypes present in society and includes a variety of behaviors, such as sexual violence and harassment, corporal punishment, and bullying. The impact of school violence on students’ health and psychological development has been well documented. However, research on the consequences of school violence on academic achievement in different contexts was not addressed until recent times. …

  6. Situational analysis on the status of sexual and reproductive health of students and gender-based violence in technical and vocational colleges in Malawi

    UNESCO commissioned a study to conduct a situational analysis on the status of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) of students and gender-based violence (GBV) in technical and vocational colleges (TVCs) in Malawi operating under the Technical, Entrepreneurship and Vocational (TEVET) system. The methodology comprised of a desk review, survey, key informant interviews, and focus group discussions. …

  7. The adolescent experience in-depth: using data to identify and reach the most vulnerable young people: Tanzania 2009-2012

    This report presents a secondary data analysis and triangulation of the Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) 2010, the Tanzania HIV and Malaria Indicator Survey (THMIS) 2011-12, and the Violence Against Children in Tanzania Survey (VACS) 2009. Its objectives are to analyse approximately 40 key indicators related to knowledge, attitudes, behaviours and outcomes (e.g. …

  8. Between tradition and modernity: girls’ talk about sexual relationships and violence in Kenya, Ghana and Mozambique

    This paper interrogates the influence of a tradition-modernity dichotomy on perspectives and practices on sexual violence and sexual relationships involving girls in three districts of Kenya, Ghana and Mozambique. Through deploying an analytical framework of positioning within multiple discursive sites, the authors argue that although the dichotomy misrepresents the complexity of contemporary communities, it is nonetheless deployed by girls, educational initiatives and researchers in their reflections on girls’ sexual practices and sexual violence. …

  9. ‘… a huge monster that should be feared and not done’: Lessons learned in sexuality education classes in South Africa

    Research has foregrounded the way in which heterosexual practices for many young people are not infrequently bound up with violence and unequal transactional power relations. The Life Orientation sexuality education curriculum in South African schools has been viewed as a potentially valuable space to work with young people on issues of reproductive health, gender and sexual norms and relations. …

  10. When caring is not enough: The limits of teachers’ support for South African primary school-girls in the context of sexual violence

    Between 2011 and 2012, 40.1% of all sexual offences in South Africa involved children under 18. Important scholarship has demonstrated how large-scale social and economic inequalities structure African girls’ risk to and experience of sexual violence leading to a condemnation of violent masculinities and the social processes that produce it. Under conditions of chronic poverty and unstable living conditions, girls’ vulnerability to sexual violence is increased. …

  11. Life orientation sexuality education in South Africa: Gendered norms, justice and transformation

    Research on sexual practices among young South Africans has proliferated in light of the national imperatives to challenge the spread of HIV/AIDS, gender-based violence and unwanted early pregnancies. It has been widely acknowledged that, in order to respond to these social problems, we need to understand the enmeshment of gender, class, age and other forms of social inequality, and how these are played out in ‘normal’ heterosexual relationships.

  12. We want to learn about good love: findings from a qualitative study assessing the links between comprehensive sexuality education and violence against women and girls

    Comprehensive sexuality education (CSE) – including learning about relationships, gender and gender-based violence (GBV), sex, sexuality, and sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) – can empower young people to make informed, autonomous decisions regarding their current and future relationships. CSE may also influence a positive shift in social norms which underpin violence against women and girls (VAWG), such as harmful notions of masculinity, and rigid gender roles and stereotypes – both in schools and the wider community. …

  13. Human rights and the HIV response: a rapid assessment of human rights violations in the context of HIV, in the Eastern and Southern Africa region, and a review of current approaches to protecting and promoting human rights for an effective HIV response

    Key populations, specifically people who sell sex (PWSS), people who inject drugs (PWID) and lesbian, and gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI) people experience significant human rights violations which underpin the continued high HIV incidence in these populations. This rapid assessment of human rights violations in Eastern and southern Africa focuses on three priority key populations – PWSS, LGBTI (including MSM), and PWID. The report outlines the normative international treaties that establish a basis for a human rights framework for the HIV response.

  14. Shamed and blamed: pregnant girls’ rights at risk in Sierra Leone

    The report makes a number of recommendations for action by the government to guarantee girls’ right to health, including access to sexual and reproductive health information and services, and in particular post rape services. It also calls for further action to eradicate violence against girls, to protect girls at risk, and enforce laws against perpetrators of sexual violence.

  15. Assessing school climate towards sustainable learning for all in Sub-Saharan Africa: Perspectives from unstable health to school-related gender-based violence (SRGBV)

    The objective of the current study is to explore the use of Rasch scaling technique to construct a Perceived School Disorder Index (PSDI) in order to see if there are ‘stages’ of evolution in a school climate. More specifically, the research questions for the current study are: Which items constitute the PSDI in Sub-Saharan African countries? What profile of behavioural problems are likely to emerge at different stages of the school climate? What were boys’ and girls’ learning outcomes at each stage of the school climate?

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