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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Gender violence and HIV: Perceptions and experiences of violence and other rights abuses against women living with HIV in the Eastern Cape, KwaZulu Natal and Western Cape, South Africa

    The AIDS Legal Network (ALN), in collaboration with Her Rights Initiative (HRI), South Africa Positive Women Ambassadors (SAPWA), South Africa Partners, and the Mitchell’s Plain Network Opposing Abuse, engaged in a study to assess perceptions and experiences of violence and other rights abuses against women living with HIV. …

  2. The importance of addressing gender inequality in efforts to end vertical transmission of HIV

    The recently launched ‘‘Global Plan towards the Elimination of New HIV Infections among Children by 2015 and Keeping their Mothers Alive’’ sets forth ambitious targets that will require more widespread implementation of comprehensive prevention of vertical HIV transmission (PMTCT) programmes. As PMTCT policymakers and implementers work toward these new goals, increased attention must be paid to the role that gender inequality plays in limiting PMTCT programmatic progress. …

  3. They are destroying our futures: Sexual violence against girls in Zambia's schools

    This report examines the problem of sexual violence against girls in Zambian schools. In Zambia, many girls are raped, sexually abused, harassed, and assaulted by teachers and male classmates. They are also subjected to sexual harassment and attack while travelling to and from school. Such abuse is a devastating and often overlooked manifestation of the gender-based violence that occurs in numerous settings in Zambia and other countries throughout the world. …

  4. Sexuality and the limits of agency among South African teenage women: theorising femininities and their connections to HIV risk practices

    In South Africa, both HIV and gender-based violence are highly prevalent. Gender inequalities give men considerable relational power over young women, particularly in circumstances of poverty and where sex is materially rewarded. Young women are often described as victims of men, but this inadequately explains women's observed sexual agency. This paper takes a different approach. The authors use qualitative interviews and ethnographic observation among 16 young women from the rural Eastern Cape to explore ways young women construct their femininities and exercise agency. …

  5. Individual and community-level tolerance of spouse abuse and the association with the circumstances of first sex among youth from six sub-Saharan African countries

    Youth who engage in early and premarital sex are at risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infections. Most prevention programs ignore the mediating influence of the threat and experience of violence on these outcomes. Using nationally representative data from Lesotho, Malawi, Zimbabwe, Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda, the autors used multivariate analyses to examine the association between individual- and community-level tolerance of spouse abuse on the age and circumstances of sexual debut among female youth. The youth sample sizes ranged from a high of 5007 in Malawi to a low of 3050 in Lesotho. …

  6. Expanding reproductive rights knowledge and advocacy with HIV-positive women and their allies in Namibia: an action-oriented approach. Summary report

    Ipas and the International Community of Women Living with HIV (ICW) collaborated on a project to enhance the capacity of ICW members in Namibia to work on issues of gender, violence, HIV/AIDS and reproductive rights with members of their communities. This summary report discusses a follow-up initiative to a 2007 training-of-trainers course held in Namibia and offers concluding observations of successes and challenges of the initiative.

  7. Plan d'action triennal opérationnel de lutte contre la féminisation de l'épidémie du sida et les violences basées sur le genre en RDC (2010-2012)

    La situation générale de l'épidémie du VIH/sida en RDC se caractérise par sa tendance à la féminisation, à la juvénilisation et à la ruralisation. Parmi les déterminants qui favorisent sa propagation figurent l'ignorance des précautions à prendre pour éviter de contracter le virus, l'accès limité aux services de prévention, les conditions de vie difficile, la promiscuité, la précocité des rapports sexuels, le multi partenariat sexuel et la mobilité des populations. …

  8. Pasa la Voz (Spread the Word): Using Women's Social Networks for HIV Education and Testing

    Pasa la Voz (spread the word) is a methodology used to prevent HIV using respondent-driven sampling to reach hard to access women. An organization in Ciudad Juarez (Programa Companeros) initiated a one-to-one approach to reaching at-risk and hard to reach women in the area using promotoras (outreach workers) from September 2005 to January 2006. The implementation of Pasa la Voz came on its heels and had success in increasing the number of women agreeing to get tested for HIV (11.9% to 49.9%) and decreasing testing time from 22.70 hours to 3.68 hours per test.

  9. Women, girls and HIV and AIDS: education, women's economic empowerment and workplace violence

    Today, evidence points indisputably to the important intersection of HIV and gender inequality. In 2010, women and girls accounted for more than half of all people living with HIV (about 52%). They are disproportionately affected by gender-based violence, suffer economic inequalities and shoulder the bulk of the burden of caring for people living with HIV.

  10. Addressing violence against women and girls in sexual and reproductive health services: a review of knowledge assets

    This knowledge asset focuses on the integration of resources to address gender-based violence against women and girls into the existing health care services. The review of the literature aims to provide guidance to health sector programme designers and managers in order to facilitate integration. …

  11. Gender Based Violence and HIV/AIDS in Cambodia: Links, Opportunities and Potential Responses

    There is growing evidence from different countries that gender based violence can increase the risk of HIV/AIDS as well as be an outcome of HIV/AIDS. Researchers, focusing on understanding the explosion of the HIV/AIDS epidemic among women and girls, have highlighted how sexual coercion and fear of violence limit women's ability to negotiate safe sex behaviors such as condom use and reduced number of partners, access services, and/or adopt practices to prevent mother to child transmission. …

  12. The association between violence against women and HIV: evidence from a national population-based survey in Zimbabwe

    Violence against women has been associated with increased risk of HIV infection among women. In Zimbabwe, both violence against women and HIV are widespread. Although Zimbabwe has been experiencing a significant decline of adult HIV prevalence in recent years, women remain disproportionately infected and affected by the epidemic. The 2005-06 Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey (ZDHS) provides the first national estimate of the prevalence of violence against women and also the first population-based estimates of HIV prevalence and patterns. …

  13. HIV/AIDS, security and conflict: new realities, new responses

    Demonstrating the impact HIV has on security, the ASCI report outlines how security crises and security institutions can influence HIV incidence. Importantly, the study indicates that with good policy and appropriate programmes, challenges can be overcome. It recommends 10 ways in which efforts towards peacekeeping, peacebuilding and humanitarian response can integrate HIV issues.

  14. Gender equality, HIV, and AIDS: a challenge for the education sector

    The book shows that while gender inequalities in society generally, and particularly within the education sector, are driving aspects of the HIV epidemic, educational settings can be empowering and bring about change. It examines different expectations of what HIV education programmes and education settings can do to transform unequal gender relations and protect young people against HIV and AIDS and contribute to care for those affected and infected. …

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