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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. HIV prevention among adolescent girls and young women: putting HIV prevention among adolescent girls and young women on the fast-track and engaging men and boys

    This programming guidance is meant to inform programmes that aim to reduce HIV infection among adolescent girls and young women in countries and locations where HIV incidence is high among adolescent girls and young women and where HIV is primarily spread through heterosexual transmission. This report primarily is for policymakers, planners and implementers of HIV prevention programmes across multiple sectors, including organizations led by young people. …

  2. Unintended pregnancies among young women living in urban slums: Evidence from a prospective study in Nairobi City, Kenya

    Background: Despite the significant proportion of young people residing in slum communities, little attention has been paid to the sexual and reproductive health (SRH) challenges they face during their transition to adulthood within this harsh environment. Little is known about the extent to which living in extreme environments, like slums, impact SRH outcomes, especially during this key developmental period. …

  3. A review of interventions addressing structural drivers of adolescents' sexual and reproductive health vulnerability in sub-Saharan Africa: implications for sexual health programming

    Background: Young people particularly women are at increased risk of undesirable sexual and reproductive health (SRH) outcomes. Structural factors have been reported as driving some of these risks. Although several interventions have targeted some of the structural drivers for adolescent’s SRH risk, little has been done to consolidate such work. This would provide a platform for coordinated efforts towards adolescent’s SRH. …

  4. HIV prevention in Southern Africa for young people with a focus on young women and girls in Botswana

    This review focuses on the major factors that drive HIV infection and explores interventions that have demonstrated effectiveness, as well as illustrating important learnings for programme development. Findings inform understanding of sex and sexuality in relation to HIV risk and the potentials for interventions in the Botswana context.

  5. A Cultural approach to HIV/AIDS prevention and care: UNESCO/UNAIDS research project. Uganda’s experience: country report

    This document provides the findings of a country assessment carried out in Uganda in the first phase of the UNESCO/UNAIDS joint project "A Cultural Approach to HIV/AIDS: Prevention and Care". The purpose of this exercise was threefold: (i) to assess the evolution of the epidemic (HIV infection and PWA) and its cultural and societal impact in the context and perspective of sustainable development. (ii) to determine how and to which extent culture, features and resources of the population are being taken into consideration in the design, implementation and evaluation of HIV/AIDS interventions. …

  6. If I buy the Kellogg’s then he should [buy] the milk: young women’s perspectives on relationship dynamics, gender power and HIV risk in Johannesburg, South Africa

    Ideals of masculinity and femininity may limit South African women's decision making power in relationships and increase their risk of HIV infection. The authors conducted 30 in-depth interviews with 18-24-year-old women in inner-city Johannesburg with the aim of understanding young women's expectations of intimate relationships with men, their perceptions of gender and power and how this influences HIV risk. …

  7. I did it for him, not for me: an exploratory study of factors influencing sexual debut among female university students in Durban, South Africa

    The authors used qualitative interviews to explore influences on first sexual intercourse among 10 young women who had sexual debut within a year of enrolling in the university. University culture of sexual permissiveness and pressure from sexually experienced friends and male partners were the main factors influencing sexual debut. Ambivalence and a range of coercive behaviors characterized first sex. Participants were unprepared for sex and lacked power in deciding the timing and circumstances of first sex, which resulted in physical and emotional pain and regret. …

  8. Gendered perceptions of HIV risk among young women and men in a high-HIV-prevalence setting

    It has become evident that sexual health and HIV-risk behaviours cannot be addressed effectively without paying adequate attention to constructions of gender and sexuality. While the body of literature examining these themes is growing and becoming more nuanced, there is still a significant gap in our understanding of the relationship between gendered sexual identities and vulnerabilities to disease. In particular, few studies have explored how youths themselves perceive this relationship, and how these perceptions may differ among males and females. …

  9. Using participatory research and action to address the HIV-related vulnerabilities of adolescent girls in Tanzania

    Globally, girls and young women are more likely to be HIV positive than their male peers, due in large part to an array of gender inequalities that negatively impact their mental and physical well being. Protecting girls from this multi-dimensional risk requires first understanding how the girls experience vulnerability in their daily lives and developing solutions that are actionable within the community context. …

  10. Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights of Women and Youth in the Context of Climate Change

    The effects of climate change can hamper access to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services. This restricts women and young people's options to plan families, and limits a community's ability to respond to climate change. SRH and climate change movements should work together to ensure women and youth access to SRH and mitigate climate change.

  11. Guidelines for implementation of the behaviour change communication (BCC) strategy

    The national BCC strategy was developed in collaboration with HIV and AIDS stakeholders and has since been disseminated at national and district levels. The strategy is one of the prevention oriented implementation components on HIV and AIDS for the country as outlined in the National Strategic Plan. Changing of high risk behaviours has been identified as one of the critical prevention tools for reducing new HIV infections. The Strategy provides a framework for behaviour change that is practical and addresses the realities of the Basotho nation. …

  12. The HIV/AIDS challenge in Mozambique: who is most at risk and how we can get more information to them

    HIV/AIDS is a major threat to the well-being of Mozambicans, not to mention to the country's economic and social development. Mozambique has one of the highest prevalence rates of HIV in the world. Close to 13 percent of the adult population between 15 and 49 is infected. Women, youth and young adults are most at risk. Analysis from AudienceScapes suggests that radio has the most potential for reaching women, youth and young adults. …

  13. We can empower young people to protect themselves from HIV. Joint Action for Results, UNAIDS Outcome Framework: Business Case 2009-2011

    The Joint Action for Results: UNAIDS Outcome Framework, 2009-2011 represents a new and more focused commitment to the HIV response and serves as a platform to move towards UNAIDS' vision of zero new HIV-infections, zero discrimination, and zero AIDS-related deaths. It commits the UNAIDS Secretariat and Cosponsors to leverage their respective organizational mandates and resources to work collectively to deliver results.The Outcome Framework focuses on ten priority areas, each of which represents a pivotal component of the AIDS response. …

  14. The short-term impacts of a schooling conditional cash transfer program on the sexual behaviour of young women

    Recent evidence suggests that conditional cash transfer programs for schooling are effective in raising school enrollment and attendance. However, there is also reason to believe that such programs can affect other outcomes, such as the sexual behavior of their young beneficiaries. Zomba Cash Transfer Program is a randomized, ongoing conditional cash transfer intervention targeting young women in Malawi that provides incentives (in the form of school fees and cash transfers) to current schoolgirls and recent dropouts to stay in or return to school. …

  15. Going all-out for human rights and sexual health: aiming for results in Burkina Faso

    Officially launched in January 2004, the German-Burkinabe Sexual Health and Human Rights Programme (PROSAD) was chosen for write-up in the German HIV Practice Collection because, over the years, it has become a uniquely sustained, comprehensive and results-driven effort to protect and empower women, youth and children. It has helped raise their own and public awareness of their human rights, including their sexual and reproductive rights, and has provided them with a range of services and mechanisms that allow them to take advantage of those rights.

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