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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Women and girls and HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia

    This document is an assessment of the policy and legal framework protecting the rights of women and girls in Ethiopia and reducing their vulnerability to HIV/AIDS UNFPA has commissioned this study as part of its HIV/AIDS and gender development program. The overall objectives of the study were to: 1. identify gaps in the existing policies and legal frameworks, and offer concrete recommendations to fill the gaps; 2. document the existing policies and legal frameworks, together with references to international instruments; 3. …

  2. Education and risky sex in Africa: Unraveling the link between women’s education and reproductive health behaviors in Kenya

    Much research attention has been devoted to understanding the relationship between education and riskier sex-related behaviors and HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa. While in the early 1990s researchers found that increases in education were associated with a higher incidence of HIV/AIDS, this relationship appears to have reversed and better educated people, especially women, appear less likely to engage in riskier sex-related behaviors and have a lower incidence rate of HIV/AIDS. …

  3. Women's empowerment and choice of contraceptive methods in selected African countries

    Few studies have examined the different dimensions of women's empowerment and contraceptive use in African countries. Data for this study came from the latest round of Demographic and Health Surveys conducted between 2006 and 2008 in Namibia, Zambia, Ghana and Uganda. Responses from married or cohabiting women ages 15–49 were analyzed for six dimensions of empowerment and the current use of female-only methods or couple methods. Bivariate and multivariate multinomial regressions were used to identify associations between the empowerment dimensions and method use. …

  4. They arrested me for loving a schoolgirl: ethnography, HIV, and a feminist assessment of the age of consent law as a gender-based structural intervention in Uganda

    In 1990 women's rights activists in Uganda successfully lobbied to amend the Defilement Law, raising the age of sexual consent for adolescent females from fourteen to eighteen years old and increasing the maximum sentence to death by hanging. The amendment can be considered a macro-level intervention designed to address the social and health inequalities affecting young women and girls, particularly their disproportionately high rate of HIV as compared to their male counterparts. …

  5. Individual and community-level tolerance of spouse abuse and the association with the circumstances of first sex among youth from six sub-Saharan African countries

    Youth who engage in early and premarital sex are at risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infections. Most prevention programs ignore the mediating influence of the threat and experience of violence on these outcomes. Using nationally representative data from Lesotho, Malawi, Zimbabwe, Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda, the autors used multivariate analyses to examine the association between individual- and community-level tolerance of spouse abuse on the age and circumstances of sexual debut among female youth. The youth sample sizes ranged from a high of 5007 in Malawi to a low of 3050 in Lesotho. …

  6. Plan d'action triennal opérationnel de lutte contre la féminisation de l'épidémie du sida et les violences basées sur le genre en RDC (2010-2012)

    La situation générale de l'épidémie du VIH/sida en RDC se caractérise par sa tendance à la féminisation, à la juvénilisation et à la ruralisation. Parmi les déterminants qui favorisent sa propagation figurent l'ignorance des précautions à prendre pour éviter de contracter le virus, l'accès limité aux services de prévention, les conditions de vie difficile, la promiscuité, la précocité des rapports sexuels, le multi partenariat sexuel et la mobilité des populations. …

  7. Keep them in school: the importance of education as a protective factor against HIV infection among young South African women

    This study aimed to identify risk factors for HIV infection among women aged 15-24 years who reported having one lifetime sexual partner in South Africa. A 2003 household survey of 11,904 15-24 year old women on sexual behavior and HIV testing was used. The analysis focuses on a sample of 1,708 women reporting one lifetime partner. Results show that 15% of the women reporting one lifetime partner were HIV positive. In multivariable analysis, completion of high school was associated withábeing HIV-negative (AOR 3.75; 95% CI 1.34-10.46). …

  8. Effects of neighbourhood-level educational attainment on HIV prevalence among young women in Zambia

    This study looked at linkages between neighborhood educational attainment and HIV prevalence among young women in urban and rural areas of Zambia. Using cross-sectional survey data from 2003, 1295 women were identified from 10 urban and 10 rural clusters. A neighbourhood-level educational attainment measure was constructed by aggregating individual-level years in school. Adjustment was made for certain variables (education, currently a student, marital status, ever given birth, sexual activity, lifetime sexual partners). …

  9. U.S. Global Health Policy. The Women, Girls, and Gender Equality Principle of the U.S. Global Health Initiative (GHI): Assessment of the GHI Plus Country Strategies

    President Obama announced the U.S. Global Health Initiative (GHI) in May 2009 as a step in developing a comprehensive, global health government strategy. One of its seven central tenets relates to "women, girls and gender equality." Eight GHI Plus countries (those in which the US rolls out health programs selected for accelerated implementation of GHI). This report assesses how this GHI requirements for strategies and 10 Key Elements of Implementation were integrated into GHI Plus country strategies. …

  10. Les femmes à l'épreuve du VIH dans les pays du sud: genre et accès universel à la prise en charge

    Alors que les programmes de prévention et de traitement ont permis des avancées majeures dans les pays du Sud, les femmes vivant avec le VIH, majoritaires en Afrique, bénéficient-elles de ces progrès à égalité avec les hommes ? Mères et futures mères d'enfants exposés, quelle expérience ont-elles des systèmes de soins ? Les responsabilités qui leur incombent en matière de prévention et de charge des soins au sein des couples et des familles, associées aux exigences des programmes sanitaires sont-elles, pour elles, sources de difficultés supplémentaires ? …

  11. Sexual risk among orphaned adolescents: is country-level HIV prevalence an important factor?

    Previous studies from sub-Saharan Africa have found that orphans experience increased sexual risk compared to non-orphans. This article developed a theoretical framework for the investigation of determinants of HIV risk and used it to generate specific hypotheses regarding the effect of country-level HIV prevalence on the sexual risk experience of orphans. It expected that countries with high HIV prevalence would experience a higher prevalence of orphanhood. …

  12. The association between violence against women and HIV: evidence from a national population-based survey in Zimbabwe

    Violence against women has been associated with increased risk of HIV infection among women. In Zimbabwe, both violence against women and HIV are widespread. Although Zimbabwe has been experiencing a significant decline of adult HIV prevalence in recent years, women remain disproportionately infected and affected by the epidemic. The 2005-06 Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey (ZDHS) provides the first national estimate of the prevalence of violence against women and also the first population-based estimates of HIV prevalence and patterns. …

  13. The short-term impacts of a schooling conditional cash transfer program on the sexual behaviour of young women

    Recent evidence suggests that conditional cash transfer programs for schooling are effective in raising school enrollment and attendance. However, there is also reason to believe that such programs can affect other outcomes, such as the sexual behavior of their young beneficiaries. Zomba Cash Transfer Program is a randomized, ongoing conditional cash transfer intervention targeting young women in Malawi that provides incentives (in the form of school fees and cash transfers) to current schoolgirls and recent dropouts to stay in or return to school. …

  14. Legal grounds: reproductive and sexual rights in African Commonwealth courts. Volume II

    Gender-based discrimination remains one of the greatest threats to women's health and lives worldwide, despite domestic, regional, and international human rights guarantees of equality, reproductive and sexual rights, and a range of other rights. Such guarantees remain empty promises if not recognized and reinforced by national courts. …

  15. Addressing the vulnerability of young women and girls to stop the HIV epidemic in southern Africa

    The papers explore some of the factors that are driving the current epidemic in southern Africa. These include the practice of age disparate and intergenerational sex; biological vulnerability of young women; economic empowerment; education and gender-based violence. A final paper examines the complex interaction between environmental factors and individual choices, behaviours and community norms.

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