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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. The role of partners’ educational attainment in the association between HIV and education amongst women in seven sub-Saharan African countries

    Introduction: Individuals’ educational attainment has long been considered as a risk factor for HIV. However, little attention has been paid to the association between partner educational attainment and HIV infection. Methods: We conducted cross-sectional analysis of young women (aged 1534) in 14 Demographic and Health Surveys from seven sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries with generalized HIV epidemics. …

  2. Silenced and forgotten: HIV and AIDS agenda setting paper for women living with HIV, sex workers and LGBT individuals in southern African and Indian Ocean states

    The impact of the HIV and AIDS epidemic is felt hardest by the individuals who are infected or affected by the disease, and in particular by individuals who are especially vulnerable to HIV infection due to stigma and discrimination, poverty, a lack of access to education, health and other services that promote HIV awareness. However, the impact of HIV and AIDS goes beyond the individual or household level – it affects nations as a whole. …

  3. Individual and community-level tolerance of spouse abuse and the association with the circumstances of first sex among youth from six sub-Saharan African countries

    Youth who engage in early and premarital sex are at risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infections. Most prevention programs ignore the mediating influence of the threat and experience of violence on these outcomes. Using nationally representative data from Lesotho, Malawi, Zimbabwe, Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda, the autors used multivariate analyses to examine the association between individual- and community-level tolerance of spouse abuse on the age and circumstances of sexual debut among female youth. The youth sample sizes ranged from a high of 5007 in Malawi to a low of 3050 in Lesotho. …

  4. Paying to prevent HIV infection in young women?

    Between a quarter and a third of young women in sub-Saharan Africa are infected with HIV by the time they reach their early 20s. Structural factors such as poor education, poverty, and gender and power inequalities are important determinants of young women’s vulnerability to HIV infection. In The Lancet, Sarah Baird and colleagues report the results of a randomised controlled trial done with adolescent girls in rural Malawi, examining the effects of a cash transfer programme on risk of HIV infection. …

  5. U.S. Global Health Policy. The Women, Girls, and Gender Equality Principle of the U.S. Global Health Initiative (GHI): Assessment of the GHI Plus Country Strategies

    President Obama announced the U.S. Global Health Initiative (GHI) in May 2009 as a step in developing a comprehensive, global health government strategy. One of its seven central tenets relates to "women, girls and gender equality." Eight GHI Plus countries (those in which the US rolls out health programs selected for accelerated implementation of GHI). This report assesses how this GHI requirements for strategies and 10 Key Elements of Implementation were integrated into GHI Plus country strategies. …

  6. From talk to action: review of women, girls, and gender equality in NSPs in Southern and Eastern Africa

    From Talk to Action: Review of Women, Girls, and Gender Equality in National Strategic Plans on HIV and AIDS in Southern and Eastern Africa identifies: Evidence-informed priorities for addressing women, girls, and gender equality through National Strategic Plans on HIV and AIDS; Existing policy and programmatic gaps within National Strategic Plans on HIV and AIDS; Sample interventions and strategies for addressing women, girls, and gender equality within National Strategic Plans on HIV and AIDS. …

  7. The short-term impacts of a schooling conditional cash transfer program on the sexual behaviour of young women

    Recent evidence suggests that conditional cash transfer programs for schooling are effective in raising school enrollment and attendance. However, there is also reason to believe that such programs can affect other outcomes, such as the sexual behavior of their young beneficiaries. Zomba Cash Transfer Program is a randomized, ongoing conditional cash transfer intervention targeting young women in Malawi that provides incentives (in the form of school fees and cash transfers) to current schoolgirls and recent dropouts to stay in or return to school. …

  8. Gender-based violence in sub-Saharan Africa: a review of demographic and health survey findings and their use in national planning

    Gender-based violence (GBV) is a pervasive human rights issue with public health consequences. The growing body of evidence on violence and HIV/AIDS continues to confirm that violence is a lead factor in the 'feminization' of the global AIDS epidemic and the disproportionately higher rates of HIV-infection among women and girls, who now represent at least half of those infected worldwide and about 60% of those infected in sub-Saharan Africa. The main purposes of this desk review are to: 1. …

  9. National HIV/AIDS Policy: a call for renewed action

    More than 20 years from the onset of the epidemic, HIV/AIDS remains a global challenge. According to the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), HIV/AIDS has particularly affected sub-Saharan Africa, with 28.5 million people estimated to be living with the virus in the region by 2001 (UNAIDS, 2001). This figure represents approximately 71% of all people living with HIV/AIDS in the world. About 81% of all HIV-infected women and 79% of all HIV/AIDS orphans live in sub-Saharan Africa. …

  10. Facing the future together: Report of the Secretary General's Task Force on Women, Girls and HIV/AIDS in Southern Africa

    For several months in 2003, the Secretary General's Task Force on Women, Girls and HIV/AIDS in Southern Africa engaged in intensive on-the-ground consultations in the nine countries in the sub-region with the highest HIV prevalence rates - Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia and Zimbabwe. …

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