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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. If I buy the Kellogg’s then he should [buy] the milk: young women’s perspectives on relationship dynamics, gender power and HIV risk in Johannesburg, South Africa

    Ideals of masculinity and femininity may limit South African women's decision making power in relationships and increase their risk of HIV infection. The authors conducted 30 in-depth interviews with 18-24-year-old women in inner-city Johannesburg with the aim of understanding young women's expectations of intimate relationships with men, their perceptions of gender and power and how this influences HIV risk. …

  2. Broadening gender: Why masculinities matter. Attitudes, practices and gender-based violence in four districts in Sri Lanka

    In order to bridge the gap in evidence-based studies of masculinities in Sri Lanka, CARE International Sri Lanka undertook, together with Partners for Prevention (P4P), a UNDP, UNFPA, UN Women and UNV regional joint programme for gender-based violence prevention in Asia and the Pacific, a study on men’s knowledge, practices and social attitudes toward gender and gender-based violence. This study brings out key risk factors in relation to violence against women, childhood trauma and men’s own experience of violence. …

  3. Policy analysis tool: Addressing gender-based violence and integrating attention to engaging men and boys for gender equality in national strategic plans on HIV and AIDS

    Policy analysis tool: Addressing gender-based violence and integrating attention to engaging men and boys for gender equality in national strategic plans on HIV and AIDS

  4. Is There a Gender Gap in the HIV Response? Evaluating National HIV Responses From the United Nations General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS Country Reports

    Background: The Declaration of Commitment of the United Nations General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS (UNGASS), in 2001, sets out several policy and programmatic commitments that pertain to women and the gender aspects of the HIV epidemic. Some of them are general, whereas others are more specific and include time-bounded targets. This article summarizes data on policies and strategies affecting women and men equity in access to antiretroviral treatment and other HIV services, as reported by countries but do not address other issues of gender, such as men having sex with men. …

  5. Women hold up half the sky - and half the burden of the HIV epidemic

    The HIV burden on women is dramatically higher in some regions, certain age groups and among marginalized groups, such as female sex workers. Women’s vulnerability to HIV is exacerbated by gender inequality and domestic violence. The global effort towards elimination of paediatric HIV and keeping mothers alive deserves applause. However, the needs of women go beyond their child-bearing age or potentials and/or reproductive desires and must be recognized in the global HIV agenda. In particular, more female-controlled prevention tools are urgently required to allow women to protect themselves.

  6. Economic status, education and risky sexual behavior for urban Botswana women

    This study investigated the relationship between economic status, education and risky sexual behavior for urban Botswana women. The data used are a nationally representative sample from the Botswana AIDS Impact Survey conducted in 2004. An un-weighted sample of 2215 women aged 15-49, who have had sexual intercourse was considered for analysis. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses are used to gain insights into the potential linkages between economic status, education and risky sexual behavior. …

  7. Gender violence and HIV: Perceptions and experiences of violence and other rights abuses against women living with HIV in the Eastern Cape, KwaZulu Natal and Western Cape, South Africa

    The AIDS Legal Network (ALN), in collaboration with Her Rights Initiative (HRI), South Africa Positive Women Ambassadors (SAPWA), South Africa Partners, and the Mitchell’s Plain Network Opposing Abuse, engaged in a study to assess perceptions and experiences of violence and other rights abuses against women living with HIV. …

  8. Women out loud: How women living with HIV will help the world end AIDS

    Women may make up half the world’s population, but they do not share it equally. This is especially evident when it comes to HIV. Half of all people living with HIV are women, yet many are underserved or do not know their status. Despite the many successes we have seen, women still face inequalities that will keep the AIDS response from reaching its full potential.

  9. Gender-based violence and HIV: Emerging lessons from the PEPFAR initiative in Tanzania

    This paper examines how the GBV initiative is being introduced in Tanzania, one of the GBV focus countries, based on interviews in Tanzania in April 2012 with U.S. government officials, nongovernmental organizations, and implementing partners, as well as interviews in Washington, D.C. …

  10. Are women at the centre? A critical review of the new NSP response to women's sexual and reproductive rights

    One of the recognised challenges of the national AIDS response has been the lack of adequate programmes and interventions aimed at protecting and advancing women’s sexual and reproductive rights and health needs in the context of HIV. The new National Strategic Plan on HIV, STIs and TB, 2012 – 2016 (NSP) was launched on 01 December 2011, making it thus crucial to review the new policy document designed to strategically guide the national response to HIV for the next five years. …

  11. Effective approaches to addressing the intersection of violence against women and HIV/AIDS: Findings from programmes supported by the UN Trust to End Violence Against Women

    In 2005, the UN Trust Fund to End Violence against Women, with support from Johnson & Johnson, opened a special funding window for the 2005-2008 programming period to address the intersection of violence against women and HIV/AIDS. Through this funding window, the UN Trust Fund made grants to a unique cohort of grantees in Asia, Africa, Latin America, and the Caribbean to support programmes aimed at reducing violence against women and its consequent risks for HIV/AIDS as well as to reduce the violence, stigma, and discrimination that women living with HIV/AIDS face. …

  12. Women's empowerment and choice of contraceptive methods in selected African countries

    Few studies have examined the different dimensions of women's empowerment and contraceptive use in African countries. Data for this study came from the latest round of Demographic and Health Surveys conducted between 2006 and 2008 in Namibia, Zambia, Ghana and Uganda. Responses from married or cohabiting women ages 15–49 were analyzed for six dimensions of empowerment and the current use of female-only methods or couple methods. Bivariate and multivariate multinomial regressions were used to identify associations between the empowerment dimensions and method use. …

  13. They arrested me for loving a schoolgirl: ethnography, HIV, and a feminist assessment of the age of consent law as a gender-based structural intervention in Uganda

    In 1990 women's rights activists in Uganda successfully lobbied to amend the Defilement Law, raising the age of sexual consent for adolescent females from fourteen to eighteen years old and increasing the maximum sentence to death by hanging. The amendment can be considered a macro-level intervention designed to address the social and health inequalities affecting young women and girls, particularly their disproportionately high rate of HIV as compared to their male counterparts. …

  14. Individual and community-level tolerance of spouse abuse and the association with the circumstances of first sex among youth from six sub-Saharan African countries

    Youth who engage in early and premarital sex are at risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infections. Most prevention programs ignore the mediating influence of the threat and experience of violence on these outcomes. Using nationally representative data from Lesotho, Malawi, Zimbabwe, Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda, the autors used multivariate analyses to examine the association between individual- and community-level tolerance of spouse abuse on the age and circumstances of sexual debut among female youth. The youth sample sizes ranged from a high of 5007 in Malawi to a low of 3050 in Lesotho. …

  15. Men, masculinities and HIV/AIDS: strategies for action

    The purpose of this paper is to provide practical guidance to policymakers and program managers on how to engage men and address harmful male norms in seven key areas of intervention in relation to HIV/AIDS: 1 Social and Behaviour Change in Men; 2 Violence against women; 3 Men, Sex Work and Transactional Sex; 4 Men, Substance abuse and HIV/AIDS; 5 Male Circumcision; 6 Men, VCT and Treatment; 7 Male Norms and the Caregiving for People Living with and Affected by HIV/AIDS. …

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