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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Women and HIV in the twenty-first century: how can we reach the UN 2030 goal?

    Women have always been part of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. As with other populations affected by HIV, for many years the only prevention strategy available was behavior change. Behavioral interventions for women were developed and evaluated, with some success. Because women did not control the use of male condoms, efficacious interventions needed to build skills for partner negotiation. …

  2. Do menstrual hygiene management interventions improve education and psychosocial outcomes for women and girls in low and middle income countries? A systematic review

    Background: Unhygienic and ineffective menstrual hygiene management has been documented across low resource contexts and linked to negative consequences for women and girls. Objectives: To summarise and critically appraise evidence for the effectiveness of menstruation management interventions in improving women and girls’ education, work and psychosocial wellbeing in low and middle income countries. [...] Conclusions: There is insufficient evidence to establish the effectiveness of menstruation management interventions, although current results are promising. …

  3. Education and risky sex in Africa: Unraveling the link between women’s education and reproductive health behaviors in Kenya

    Much research attention has been devoted to understanding the relationship between education and riskier sex-related behaviors and HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa. While in the early 1990s researchers found that increases in education were associated with a higher incidence of HIV/AIDS, this relationship appears to have reversed and better educated people, especially women, appear less likely to engage in riskier sex-related behaviors and have a lower incidence rate of HIV/AIDS. …

  4. Is There a Gender Gap in the HIV Response? Evaluating National HIV Responses From the United Nations General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS Country Reports

    Background: The Declaration of Commitment of the United Nations General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS (UNGASS), in 2001, sets out several policy and programmatic commitments that pertain to women and the gender aspects of the HIV epidemic. Some of them are general, whereas others are more specific and include time-bounded targets. This article summarizes data on policies and strategies affecting women and men equity in access to antiretroviral treatment and other HIV services, as reported by countries but do not address other issues of gender, such as men having sex with men. …

  5. Priority interventions to reduce HIV transmission in sex work settings in sub-Saharan Africa and delivery of these services

    Introduction: Virtually no African country provides HIV prevention services in sex work settings with an adequate scale and intensity. Uncertainty remains about the optimal set of interventions and mode of delivery. Methods: We systematically reviewed studies reporting interventions for reducing HIV transmission among female sex workers in sub-Saharan Africa between January 2000 and July 2011. Medline (PubMed) and non-indexed journals were searched for studies with quantitative study outcomes. Results: We located 26 studies, including seven randomized trials. …

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